Celluma LED Systems

Celluma’s unique flexible design allow it to mold closely to the body, and its extra large light panel and patented programs to blend red, near-infrared and blue light energy are FDA-cleared to treat:

  1. Acne Vulgaris
  2. Arthritis
  3. Muscle & Joint Stiffness
  4. Muscle Tissue Tension
  5. Muscle & Joint Pain
  6. Muscle Spasm
  7. Diminished Local Blood Circulation
  8. Wrinkles

Healing Light Seminars and David Rindge are delighted to make Celluma PRO, LITE and ELITE systems available to health professionals and to those seeking cost-effective home therapy.  Learn full details about this exciting new, affordable healing technology HERE.

Raising the Bar in the Clinic

Flash PEMF with coilHealing Light Seminars will only offer devices which we have found effective, well made and to deliver good value and which we ourselves are continuing to use in the clinic.

3-20-17 4-3-3 Images NEW FLASH-COMBO-CELLUMA

David Rindge and Healing Light Seminars have been practicing with and teaching energy-based therapies every year since 2002, continually updating our methods and equipment as new technology and information have become available.

Our goal over this seminar weekend is to provide you with everything you need to come from knowledge and strength with laser, light emitting diode and pulsed electromagnetic field therapies in your practice!

Day 1 focuses on theory, biological effects and essentials for treatment success.   You will have the opportunity for hands-on practice with state-of-the-art laser, laser needle acupuncture, light emitting diode and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy systems for the treatment of pain, head to toe.

In Day 2, you will learn how lasers, light emitting diodes and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy devices may be applied successfully in aesthetics / dermatology, cardiovascular disease, digestive, ear and eye disorders, gynecology, for hair regrowth, neuropathy, osteoporosis, respiratory disorders, sports medicine and much more.

Gain a solid understanding of the principles, technology and parameters of laser, laser needle, light emitting diode and pulsed electromagnetic therapies and the skills to apply them successfully in your practice!  NCCAOM 322-5, seven hours each day, Saturday and Sunday.  Learn More and Register Here

Course Date / Location

November 4-5, 2017.  SpringHill Suites Orlando Airport.  5828 Hazeltine National DriveOrlando, FL 32822. (407) 816-5533.

LEARN MORE AND REGISTER HERE

Or call 321-751-7001.

Healing Light Seminars

Training in Energy-based Therapies since 2002

14 PDAs – NCCAOM 322-5

14 CEUs Florida Acupuncturists

NCCAOM emblem

To be prepared is half the victory!

Laser, laser needle acupuncture, pulsed electromagnetic field and light emitting diode therapies are the right tools for healing today’s complex patients and for your successful practice!

All devices pictured above and more will likely be available for you to train and practice with in this course.

David Rindge and Healing Light Seminars have been teaching and practicing with energy-based therapies since 2002.  We continually update our methods and equipment as new technology and information become available.  We will only offer a device if we are continuing to use it clinically, have found it effective and to deliver good value.

Day 1 focuses on theory, biological effects and essentials for treatment success.   You will have the opportunity for hands-on practice with state-of-the-art laser, laser needle acupuncture, pulsed electromagnetic field and light emitting diode therapy systems for the treatment of pain, head to toe.

In Day 2, you will learn how laser, laser needle, light emitting diode and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy devices may be applied successfully in aesthetics / dermatology, cardiovascular disease, digestive, ear and eye disorders, gynecology, for hair regrowth, neuropathy, osteoporosis, respiratory disorders, sports medicine and much more.

Gain a solid understanding of the principles, technology and parameters of energy-based therapies and the skills to apply them successfully in your practice!  Our goal is to provide you with everything you need to come from knowledge and strength in your practice with laser, laser needle, pulsed electromagnetic field and light emitting diode therapies.  Learn More and Register Here

Course Date / Location

November 4-5, 2017.  Palm Bay, FLWild Manta, 5151 South Babcock St, Palm Bay, FL 32905.  (321) 676-8606.

LEARN MORE AND REGISTER HERE

Or call 321-751-7001.

Healing Light Seminars

Training in Energy-based Therapies since 2002

14 PDAs – NCCAOM 322-5

14 CEUs Florida Acupuncturists

NCCAOM emblem

Laser Therapy

Laser therapy1 is the term most commonly used to describe the therapeutic application of laser light at low intensity. In general, laser therapy is given at gentle, non-ionizing wavelengths within the red to near-infrared portion of the spectrum and at modest output powers below the threshold of thermal damage2.

An adverse reaction has never been documented in more than fifty years of clinical and research use, perhaps because laser therapy is generally given at gentle wavelengths and intensities. More than 5,000 studies and articles have been published.  Results have been stunning.

What can laser therapy treat?

Many, perhaps all, medical conditions are likely to benefit.  Laser therapy adds energy to regenerate cells and tissue and promote their normal function.  Conditions in which positive results have been documented include:

  • Acne
  • Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Allergic Purpura
  • Alopecia Areata
  • Arteriosclerosis/Atherosclerosis
  • Arthritis
  • Asthma
  • Back Pain
  • Bone Healing
  • Burger’s Disease
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Dental Applications (many)
  • Dermatitis
  • Diabetes
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Gastrointestinal Disorders
  • Headaches/Migraine
  • Hearing Disorders
  • Hypertension
  • Lymphedema
  • Maxillofacial Disorders
  • Meniere’ s Disease
  • Nerve Regeneration
  • Neuropathy
  • Pain (many kinds)
  • Peyronie’s Disease
  • Plantar Fasciitis
  • Post-herpetic Neuralgia
  • Prostatitis
  • Psoriasis
  • Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
  • Respiratory Disorders
    (Asthma, Bronchitis, Pleurisy, Pneumonia, Sinusitis, Tuberculosis)
  • Scars
  • Skin Disorders
  • Sports Injuries
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorder
  • Tendonitis
  • Tinnitus
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia
  • Wound Healing

Click on Laser Research Library to view research related to any of the conditions above and much more at our sister site, Healing Light Seminars.

What are the effects of laser therapy?
Four effects of low intensity laser light reported in the scientific literature are:

  1. Biostimulation/Tissue Regeneration
  2. Reduction of Inflammation
  3. Relief of Pain
  4. Antimicrobial/Immune Enhancement 2

To learn more about the physiological effects and other aspects of laser therapy, click on:

 

 

Rosalie - April Seminar vertically adjusted LightNeedleLaserneedles in Asthma

Laser needle therapy

Bronchitis Astma 2Laser needle therapy aka laser needle acupuncture was developed at the Universities of Graz and Paderborn in Germany in 2000 and is already a central therapy in many European clinics.  Laser needle treatment employs fine optical fibers to deliver highly concentrated laser light, allowing for the simultaneous stimulation of multiple points painlessly and non-invasively.

In addition to laser therapy’s well known effects to promote biological function, regenerate tissue, reduce inflammation and alleviate pain, the high intensity of laser needles has been documented to produce physiological effects similar to those of traditional metal needles.   Laser needles may be used as a stand alone treatment and also combined with traditional acupuncture and other methods.  To learn more about the effects of laser needles, see Lasers and De Qi.

Orthopedic and Physiotherapeutic Indications

Musculoskeletal pain syndromes which may respond positively to laser needle treatment include athritis affecting ankle, the back, knee, neck tennis elbow, fibromyalgia, gonarthrosis, lumbar syndrome, Morbus Bechterew, osteoporosis, periarthritis humerus scapularis, polyarthritis, spinal syndromes, rhizarthritis and tendinitis.

Besides pain relief, the regenerative effects of the laser needle irradiation on bone and cartilage may be significant. Osteonecrotic bone has been documented to be regenerated by direct laser needle irradiation (Morbus Ahlbäck, Morgus Osgood Schlatter). What is exciting is that laser needle irradiation has been shown to enhance significantly the metabolism of osteoblasts, cells which lay down new bone – without influencing osteclasts, the cells which resorb old bone. As a result, the equilibrium of bone production-reduction may be shifted to favor the bone formation side of the equation, and increased mineralization as well as stabilization and strengthening of cartilage with enhanced synthesis of hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans has also been found.

Acupuncture

Needles are important for each kind of acupuncture.  The intensity of the stimulation from the new HED (High Energy Density) laser needles has been shown to have biological effects similar to those of metal needles and, in addition, have a broad range of photobiostimulative effects. The cerebral and peripheral effects of laser needle acupuncture have been scientifically investigated in studies and articles published in more than 50 peer-reviewed publications.  The design of laser needles and the new laser needle touch systems  has evolved based upon scientific data and clinical experience. Acupuncture treatments with laser needle touch are completely painless, side-effect free and very popular for children and adults

Due perhaps to the two-fold nature of stimulation (laser photobiostimulation + acupuncture-like effects), some clinicians and at least one research study comparing laserneedles and classic metal needles have proposed that the former produce superior results.  Just as in traditional acupuncture, multiple laser needles can be placed and stimulated simultaneously. Points chosen can be in accordance with classical acupuncture. One may achieve good therapeutic results in the treatment of low-back pain, joint pain, soft tissue injuries, osteoporosis, respiratory and neurological disorders and in many other conditions.

Each laserneedle channel may be individually programmed with Nogier, Bahr and Reininger therapeutic or diagnostic frequencies.

Pain Therapy

A particular approach in pain therapy is to employ low-frequency Transcutaneous Optical Nerve Stimulation (TONS)  In this case, the laser needles are fixed on the painful area and activated in the low-frequency modulation mode. (2Hz-100 Hz).  In addition producing analgetic effects thought to be similar to those of TENS (electrical nerve stimulation), laser irradiation induces an increase of cellular energy in the target tissue by increased ATP synthesis, greater oxygenation and enhanced capillary blood flow.

Wound Healing

The beneficial effects of red/infrared laser irradiation in diabetic ulcus cruris and other therapy resistant conditions have been well documented in the phototherapy research in wound healing.

A new therapeutic approach combines the additive effects of red and blue laser light and contains three components:

  • Laserneedle irradiation of the surrounding area with four red LASER NEEDLES to increase the arterial, venous and lymphatic circulation in the area around the ulcus.
  • Direct, bichromatic irradiation of the ulcus with the KOLINA Spot, equipped with 3 red LASER NEEDLES and 1 blue laserneedle, to eliminate any staphylococcus contamination in the wound and to enhance the metabolism of fibroblast cells.

Longstanding, completely therapy resistant ulcus cruris venosum, treated with KOLINA spot. Patient, m, 56 y, healing process after 4 treatments within a period of one week

Skin Diseases

Modern laser needle phototherapy in skin disorders is based on evidence from dermatological research. Affected skin areas may be irradiated simultaneously with blue and red laserneedles of high energy density. The effects of the red laser radiation in the skin are well known, increased cellular energy (ATP synthesis), improved microcirculation of blood and lymph and enhanced oxygenation and effects on metabolism during the non-specific irradiation of the skin tissue. In these ways and others, red laser light improves the overall regenerative capacity of the skin.

Blue laserneedle radiation (405 nm specifically) has considerably different biological effects. At sufficient energy densities, immunological and anti-bacteriological effects are induced. The immunological effects are the inhibition and reduction of Langerhans cells and IgE + Langerhans cells, the inhibition of dermal mast cells and the inhibition and reduction of T-Lymphocytes. The activity and number of T-lymphocytes, which are infiltrated in the skin is influenced and decreased directly by the 405 nm radiation. A decrease of bcl-2 proteins after radiation, which acts as apoptosis inhibitor, has been reported in the literature.

405 nm blue laser irradiation has strong antimicrobial effects on poryphyrins-based bacteria such as Proprionibakterium acne, Staphylococcus aureaus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Due to its  specific immunological and anti-bacteriological effects, combining blue 405 nm laserneedle radiation with red or infrared biostimulative wavelengths may be near ideal to treat dermatological conditions which may have an infectious component such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo and acne vulgaris.

In contrast to the established UVA1 phototherapy which employs ionizing radiation, treatment with 405 nm  is completely UV- free (e.g. all possible carcinogenic risks are eliminated!). In particular for the treatment of children, 405 nm radiation is safe, side-effect free, even for longer treatment times.

Skin Rejuvenation

Biological skin rejuvenation by integrative laser treatment. New, non-invasive method, based on a patented laser-comb, which emitts trichromatic laser light (red, blue and infrared)

2-step- procedure:

  • Step One: Hyaluronic acid filling and cross-linking of the molecules by 4 color laser comb
  • Step Two: Phytotherapy to induce the formation of new collagen 1 and Elastin
  • Alternatively: photodynamic therapy to invcrease the number of collagen 1 fibres in the dermis.

Dentistry

Periodontosis and periodontosis prophylaxis

Periodontosis and Periodontosis prophylaxis by effective and non-invasive elimination of porphyrin-based bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia without any added chemicals – just by blue laser light! Efficiacy may be almost 100 %, due to the strong Soret-Band Absorption of blue photons in the bacteria.

Noninvasive Pain therapy

The stimulation of trigger-points and acupuncture points by KOLINA-dental leads to an increased release of neurotransmitters due to a specific activation of the pain centers in the hypothalamic area.
The pain-inhibiting effects are persistent and pronounced.
The application of KOLINA needles for analgetic treatments does not require any additional qualification, simple graphic instructions allow successful treatments after few exercises.

Indications:

  • Nausea and vomitting
  • Post-surgery pain treatments
  • Neuralgias
  • Psychosomatic disorders
  • Relaxation treatments

Pediatric Indications

The advantages of the painless laser needle treatments can be felt in particular in the treatments of children. The painless and side-effect free character of laser needle micro therapies is essential in pediatrics. The children experience laser needle acupuncture and laser therapy as pleasant and efficient methods. Accompanying medications for inflammatory conditions, joint diseases or skin diseases with antibiotics can often be reduced significantly.

Inflammations of the ear and Enuresis (Treatment and fotograph: R.Klowersa, Berlin)

Osteochondrosis dissecans and Bronchitis / Asthma (Treatment and fotograph: R.Klowersa, Berlin)

Acute and chronic Tinnitus – the laserneedle-music therapy

The laser needle method of treatment of tinnitus was developed in clinical studies in collaboration with Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany), Graz and Innsbruck (Austria). It combines three aspects:

  1. Repair of lesions of the cochlea and of the inner hair cells by direct, high intensity red laser irradiation of the inner ear and mastoid.
  2. Induction of alterations in the prefrontal cortex and in the limbic system( these areas are relevant for the consolidation of the tinnitus) by stimulation of relevant acupoints
  3. Simultaneous acoustic masking by relaxing music therapy.

Treatment  is recommended to be repeated 3 x per week in the first two weeks and then reduced to 2 x per week in the weeks 3, 4 and 5.   A course of therapy is 20 treatments.

No Claims Are Made in the U.S.A.

Multiple Sclerosis and Low Level Laser Therapy

Dr. Peszynski-Drews
Dr. Peszynski-Drews

“Our results from the use of laser therapy on multiple sclerosis cases shows that laser biostimulation is a successful and effective method by which to treat patients,” said Dr. Cezary Peszynski-Drews, director of the Laser Diagnostics and Therapy Center of the Technical University of Lódz, Poland.  Dr. Peszynski-Drews, also noted, “While it does not prevent multiple sclerosis, it makes patients significantly stronger, even in the most advanced stages of the disease. After treatment patients are able to move around on their own, walk short distances, and make their own breakfast. They are not totally dependent on someone else to help them and this in itself is a personal success.” Click here to view the full article in The Warsaw Voice. [7]

Low intensity laser therapy has anti-inflammatory, immune modulating and tissue regenerative properties.  It has also been reported to improve quality of life in MS.  In a study at the University of Heidelberg, 42 subjects with MS received a series of 10 treatments with transcutaneous laser irradiation of the blood over 4 superficial veins within two weeks and a second series of three sessions over 3 weeks.  Subjects reported a 16% improvement in physical quality of life and a 67% improvement in psychological quality of life.  It is noteworthy that the improvements in both physical and psychological quality of life were long lasting, still well above baseline 12 months following the last treatment.[8]

 

SF 12 Questionnaire

Multiple Sclerosis Case Study

“Tim,” a 61 year old male diagnosed with relapsing, remitting MS x 12 years was treated with laser therapy, transcutaneous laser blood irradiation, led therapy and acupuncture during 5 regular weekly office visits and also received 10 sessions of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy, near daily at the outset.  All pain scores improved progressively.  Eight months after completing the treatment series, he reported,  “I am stronger, and pain is less.  The effects have lasted.  The biggest difference is that I can feel things and hold onto them better with my hands.  My energy and mood are better.”

Standard practice in treating MS has been limited in large part to pharmaceutical drugs said to slow its progression (beta interferons), treat symptoms or reduce inflammation during exacerbations (steroids).   Are these methods cost-effective and genuinely helpful, or is there a better way?

Low level laser, led and pulsed electromagnetic field therapies have been shown to stimulate nerve regeneration and function, even in CNS injury.  They may improve quality of life and reduce the demyelination, inflammation and neuropathies associated with multiple sclerosis.

Laser Therapy Research in Neurological Disorders

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy Research in Neurological Disorders

Photobiomodulation – Preventing Medical Errors, Lowering Costs and Raising the Bar in Health Care

by David Rindge. All rights reserved

Resistance to change is natural.  We all have a tendency to repeat what we’ve done, especially if it’s worked well enough in the past.  New treatments truly can be dangerous.   Yet photobiomodulation may have the highest benefit to risk ratio of all currently available therapies   Low intensity laser, led and pulsed electromagnetic therapies heal – which means treatment often has end points.  People get well, and safe methods which heal promise to lower health care costs while raising the bar.

The Affordable Care Act has become the law of the land in the U.S.  Is it going to work?  Or has it been designed to fail?  In 2014 virtually everyone  in the U.S. reading this will be required to buy insurance.  Is it now up to the insurance industry to make health care work?

Super-pulsed 904 penetrates rat skin barrier 2-3 times easier than Continuous Wave 810.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Dec;30(12):688-94. doi: 10.1089/pho.2012.3306.Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Skin penetration time-profiles for continuous 810 nm and Superpulsed 904 nm lasers in a rat model.

Joensen J, Ovsthus K, Reed RK, Hummelsund S, Iversen VV, Lopes-Martins RÁ, Bjordal JM.

Source

Department of Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy, and Radiography, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway. jon.joensen@hib.no

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the rat skin penetration abilities of two commercially available low-level laser therapy (LLLT) devices during 150 sec of irradiation.

BACKGROUND DATA:

Effective LLLT irradiation typically lasts from 20 sec up to a few minutes, but the LLLT time-profiles for skin penetration of light energy have not yet been investigated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Sixty-two skin flaps overlaying rat’s gastrocnemius muscles were harvested and immediately irradiated with LLLT devices. Irradiation was performed either with a 810 nm, 200 mW continuous wave laser, or with a 904 nm, 60 mW superpulsed laser, and the amount of penetrating light energy was measured by an optical power meter and registered at seven time points (range, 1-150 sec).

RESULTS:

With the continuous wave 810 nm laser probe in skin contact, the amount of penetrating light energy was stable at  20% (SEM±0.6) of the initial optical output during 150 sec irradiation. However, irradiation with the superpulsed 904 nm, 60 mW laser showed a linear increase in penetrating energy from 38% (SEM±1.4) to 58% (SEM±3.5) during 150 sec of exposure. The skin penetration abilities were significantly different (p<0.01) between the two lasers at all measured time points.

CONCLUSIONS:

LLLT irradiation through rat skin leaves sufficient subdermal light energy to influence pathological processes and tissue repair. The finding that superpulsed 904 nm LLLT light energy penetrates 2-3 easier through the rat skin barrier than 810 nm continuous wave LLLT, corresponds well with results of LLLT dose analyses in systematic reviews of LLLT in musculoskeletal disorders. This may explain why the differentiation between these laser types has been needed in the clinical dosage recommendations of World Association for Laser Therapy.

Laser Needle Acupuncture

Medical Acupuncture. 2010 March;22(1):11-17.

Clinical Equivalence of Laser Needle to Metal Acupuncture Needle in Treating Musculoskeletal Pain: A Pilot Study

Dorsher, PT

Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224, dorsher.peter@mayo.edu

Background: Acupuncture methodology has evolved over millennia with the introduction of new technologies.  Modern laser “needle” systems can transmit light energy deep enough through the skin to influence channel acupoints and trigger points.

Objectives: To compare whether musculoskeletal pain treatment outcomes with acupuncture are clinically equivalent whether using laser or traditional metal needles; and to determine statistical power estimates of cohort size for future double-blinded studies.

Design: Prospective nonblinded cohort study using neuroanatomically based point selection in a crossover protocol alternating between laser and metal needles.

Setting: Outpatient clinic at the Mayo Clinic Florida in Jacksonville, FL.

Participants: Thirty adults with degenerative joint or spine pain whose pain did not respond to allopathic interventions and were receiving metal needle acupuncture.

Intervention: Laser stimulation at prescribed neuroanatomically based acupoints was alternated at successive treatments with metal needles at the same points for 4 treatment sessions.

Main Outcome Measures: Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (0-10) pain rating, patient preference (metal vs laser), and treatment complications.

Results: For shoulder and knee arthritis pain, metal needle treatment pain VAS was 5.9 vs laser VAS of 3.1 (mean difference, 2.8; P=.05) Ninety percent (9/10) of participants with joint arthritis pain preferred laser treatments and reported more pain relief than similar treatments using metal needles; 80% (16/20) of spine pain participants reported the laser treatments provided at least as much pain relief as similar metal needle treatments.  No laser treatment complications were noted.

Conclusions: This pilot study of participants with chronic refractory musculoskeletal pain demonstrates that when used in neuroanatomical acupuncture treatments, laser stimulation is preferred and provides superior pain relief compared with metal needle treatments of the same acupoints.  The laser “needles” appear to be clinically equivalent to metal needles.”

Lasers Med Sci.  2013 Jan 17. [Epub ahead of print]

The effects of minimally invasive laser needle system on suppression of trabecular bone loss induced by skeletal unloading.

Ko CY, Kang H, Ryu Y, Jung B, Kim H, Jeong D, Shin HI, Lim D, Kim HS.

Source

Research Team, Korea Orthopedics and Rehabilitation Engineering Center, Incheon, 403-712, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of trabecular bone loss induced by skeletal unloading. Twelve mice have taken denervation operation. At 2 weeks after denervation, LLLT (wavelength, 660 nm; energy density, 3 J/cm(2)) was applied to the right tibiae of six mice (LASER) for 5 days/week over 2 weeks by using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) which consists of a 100 um optical fiber in a fine needle (diameter, 130 um). Structural parameters and histograms of bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) were obtained before LLLT and at 2 weeks after LLLT. In addition, osteocyte, osteoblast, and osteoclast populations were counted. Two weeks after LLLT, bone volume fraction, trabeculae number, and trabeculae thickness were significantly increased and trabecular separations, trabecular bone pattern factor, and structure model index were significantly decreased in LASER than SHAM (p<0.05). BMDD in LASER was maintained while that in SHAM was shifted to lower mineralization. Osteocyte and osteoblast populations were significantly increased but osteoclast population was significantly decreased in LASER when compared with those in SHAM (p<0.05). The results indicate that LLLT with the MILNS may enhance bone quality and bone homeostasis associated with enhancement of bone formation and suppression of bone resorption.

Lasers Med Sci.  2011 Nov 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Development of a minimally invasive laser needle system: effects on cortical bone of osteoporotic mice.

Kang H, Ko CY, Ryu Y, Seo DH, Kim HS, Jung B.

Source

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, 234 Maeji-ri, Heungup-myun, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, 220-710, Korea.

Abstract

Many studies have shown the positive effects of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of bone disease. However, laser radiation is scattered in the skin surface which reduces the initial photon density for tissue penetration and consequently the therapeutic efficacy. We developed a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) to avoid laser scattering in tissue and investigated its stimulatory effects in the cortical bone of osteoporotic mice. The MILNS was designed to stimulate cortical bone directly by employing fine hollow needles to guide 100 um optical fibers. The study animals comprised 12 mice which were subjected to sciatic denervation of the right hind limb and were randomly divided into two groups, a sham group and a laser group which were treated using the MILNS for 2 weeks without and with laser irradiation, respectively. In vivo micro-CT images were taken to analyze the structural parameters and bone mineral density. After 2 weeks of treatment with the MILNS, the relative changes in mean polar moment inertia, cross-section thickness, and periosteal perimeter were significantly higher in the laser group than in the sham group. Moreover, the distribution of bone mineral density index was higher in the laser group. The MILNS was developed as a minimally invasive treatment modality for bone disease and resulted in positive therapeutic efficacy in the cortical bone of osteoporotic mice.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Jun;6(2):153-8. Epub 2007 Nov 12.

Ten Years Evidence-based High-Tech Acupuncture–A Short Review of Peripherally Measured Effects.

Litscher G.

Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, A-8036 Graz/Austria. gerhard.litscher@meduni-graz.at.

Abstract

Since 1997, the Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine of Graz Medical University has been dealing with the demystification of acupuncture and examining, using non-invasive methods, how different stimulation modalities (manual needle acupuncture, laserneedle acupuncture and electro acupuncture) affect peripheral and central functions. Laser is also an important instrument for acupuncture. One only needs to mention the treatment of children or of patients with needle phobia. The laserneedle acupuncture, which was examined scientifically for the first time in Graz, represents a new painless acupuncture method for which up to ten laserneedles are glued to the skin, but not stuck into it. This first part of the short review article summarizes some of the peripherally measured effects of acupuncture obtained at the Medical University of Graz within the last 10 years.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009 Jan;142(1):68-72. Epub 2008 Nov 4.

Patients’ sensation during and after laserneedle versus metal needle treatment.

van Amerongen KS, Kuhn A, Mueller M.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Switzerland. k.staehler@spin.ch

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Aim of the study was to evaluate the patients’ sensations during and after laserneedle versus metal needle acupuncture.

STUDY DESIGN: The prospective study was performed at the gynaecological outpatient department of a University Teaching Hospital of Bern, Switzerland. Thirty female patients per group were included in the study and randomized into laserneedle or metal needle group. All women visited the acupuncture out patient department because of gynaecological disorders. Age of the patients in the metal needle group was 38 years in median (range 18-73 years); mean age was 41+/-13.3. Age in the laserneedle group was 36 years in median (range 16-60 years) and mean age was 39.1+/-12.2. Interventions were laserneedle acupuncture and metal needle acupuncture. Patients answered a questionnaire before, after the first treatment and prior to the second treatment. The questionnaires asked about the patients’ knowledge of the various acupuncture methods and their health condition before treatment, their perception of pain, warmth, tiredness and relaxation during or after application of the needles or during or after the treatment. Statistics were performed by Graph Pad InStat 3 for windows.

RESULTS: The common metal needle technique was well known by the patients in comparison to the laserneedle method (p<0.0001***). Laserneedle acupuncture is a method which is painless (p<0.0001***), energy inducing and relaxing (p=0.0257*) which leads to a warming sensation (p=0.0009***) during treatment.

CONCLUSION: Both methods laserneedle and metal needle acupuncture are valuable methods in achieving relaxation and improvement of gynaecological symptoms. Laserneedle acupuncture is painless and easy to apply which is a valuable reason to support this technique in the future.

J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2008 Dec;1(2):65-82.

Clinical effectiveness of laser acupuncture: a systematic review.

Baxter GD, Bleakley C, McDonough S.

Centre for Physiotherapy Research, School of Physiotherapy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. david.baxter@otago.ac.nz

Abstract

The use of laser light as an alternative to needles to stimulate acupuncture points has been promoted for almost three decades. However, there has been no systematic assessment of the evidence to support the effectiveness of this form of acupuncture to date. A systematic review was therefore undertaken of RCTs evaluating laser acupuncture as a primary intervention. Relevant studies (n = 18) were identified using computer-based literature searches and selected hand searches. Evidence was found to support the use of laser acupuncture in the treatment of myofascial pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting and for the relief of chronic tension headache. Laser acupuncture would appear to represent an effective form of acupuncture for the management of these conditions and could be considered as a viable alternative to more traditional forms of acupuncture point stimulation.

EMLA Laser Health J 2007;2:46-67 European Medical Laser Association (EMLA)L

LaserNeedle in veterinary practice

A. Roesti.

Wimmis, Switzerland

LaserNeedle is a new non invasive optical acupuncture stimulation method. The father of the LaserNeedle technique is Prof. Dr. Dr. med G. Litscher from the biomedical technical Research institute for anaesthesia and intensive care at the University of Graz in Austria.

The utmost important advantage of the LaserNeedle System is, that you can treat 8 selected acupuncture points at the same time. LaserNeedle emits highly concentrated red and infrared coherent laser rays of 680 nm with a very high energetically density onto the acupuncture point (~4.6 kJ/cm 2 ) (Ø 20 min. of stimulation).

LaserNeedles are taped perpendicular to the acupuncture point of the skin. The red and infrared Laser light is transmitted through an optical cable to the acupuncture point. There we have very little reflection of the Laser rays. Each point to be treated is detected and selected with the RAC/VAS.

The effect of the LaserNeedle stimulation is the same as all the other conventional LLLasers. Especially the stimulation of the vegetative nerve system, with neuromodulating effect. They reduce significantly pain, resolves muscular spasms and increase post operative mobility. It stimulates the microcirculation and the immune system By means of the Laser Needle the consumption of drugs and anti-inflammatory medicaments could be reduced significantly. The indication of LaserNeedle is the same as all other LLLT.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2008 Aug;26(4):301-6.

Laser-needle therapy for spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee.

Banzer W, Hübscher M, Schikora D.

Department of Sports Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main, University of Paderborn, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. banzer@sport.uni-frankfurt.de

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This case report describes the treatment of a 63-year-old patient with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK).

BACKGROUND DATA: SONK usually appears in the elderly patient without the typical risk factors for osteonecrosis. It is characterized by acute and sudden pain, mostly occurring at the medial side of the knee joint. Symptoms usually worsen with physical activity and improve with rest. Besides physical therapy, limited weight-bearing and the use of analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, we propose low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as a conservative treatment option.

METHODS: LLLT was carried out using laser needles emitting radiation with wavelengths of 685 and 885 nm, and a power density of 17.8 W/cm(2). Therapy sessions lasted 60 min and were performed daily over a period of 3 mo. The total irradiation dose emitted by 8 laser needles in 60 min of treatment was 1008 J.

RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging revealed distinct restitution of the spongiosa edema 5 wk after treatment onset, and the final check-up at 35 wk demonstrated complete restoration of integrity.

CONCLUSION: The present case report provides the first indication that laser-needle therapy may be a promising tool for complementary and alternative therapeutic intervention for those with SONK.

Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2007;35(3-4):183-95.

Bioengineering assessment of acupuncture, part 7: heart rate variability.

Litscher G.

Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM Research Center), Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. gerhard.litscher@medunigraz.at

In the seventh part of this review article, preliminary research on the topic of acupuncture and heart rate variability is described. Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the beat-to-beat alterations in heart rate. Under resting conditions, the electrocardiograms of healthy people exhibit periodic variations in the percentage change in sequential chamber complexes (RR-intervals). The parameter HRV is modulated by the blood-pressure control-system, influences from the hypothalamus, and, in particular, the vagal cardiovascular center in the lower brainstem. This review article contains a short summary of scientific literature on HRV and acupuncture.

EMLA Laser Health J 2007;2:46-67 European Medical Laser Association (EMLA)L

LaserNeedle in veterinary practice

A. Roesti.

Wimmis, Switzerland

LaserNeedle is a new non invasive optical acupuncture stimulation method. The father of the LaserNeedle technique is Prof. Dr. Dr. med G. Litscher from the biomedical technical Research institute for anaesthesia and intensive care at the University of Graz in Austria.

The utmost important advantage of the LaserNeedle System is, that you can treat 8 selected acupuncture points at the same time. LaserNeedle emits highly concentrated red and infrared coherent laser rays of 680 nm with a very high energetically density onto the acupuncture point (~4.6 kJ/cm 2 ) (Ø 20 min. of stimulation).

LaserNeedles are taped perpendicular to the acupuncture point of the skin. The red and infrared Laser light is transmitted through an optical cable to the acupuncture point. There we have very little reflection of the Laser rays. Each point to be treated is detected and selected with the RAC/VAS.

The effect of the LaserNeedle stimulation is the same as all the other conventional LLLasers. Especially the stimulation of the vegetative nerve system, with neuromodulating effect. They reduce significantly pain, resolves muscular spasms and increase post operative mobility. It stimulates the microcirculation and the immune system By means of the Laser Needle the consumption of drugs and anti-inflammatory medicaments could be reduced significantly. The indication of LaserNeedle is the same as all other LLLT.

Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2007;35(1-2):1-36.

Bioengineering assessment of acupuncture, Part 6: monitoring–neurophysiology.

Litscher G.

Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Neurophysiological monitoring using spontaneous and evoked bioelectrical brain activities provides functional assessment of the central nervous system. This sixth part of the review article summarizes results from electroencephalographic and evoked potential monitoring in connection with acupuncture. The article reflects the impact of new techniques on acupuncture research (e.g., 600 Hz oscillations). Although numerous questions concerning acupuncture remain still unsolved, the present findings could be a further step to discover the complex mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture.

Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2006;34(6):439-57.

Bioengineering assessment of acupuncture, part 5: cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy.

Litscher G.

Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. gerhard.litscher@meduni-graz.at

The assessment of cortical activation in the brain due to acupuncture is crucial. Thus far functional assessment of cortical responses to certain external stimuli (for examples, manual needle, optical, electrical) are very few due to the lack of suitable techniques to monitor changes of brain activities. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been found to be suitable for functional studies during acupuncture. By this neuromonitoring method, hemodynamic changes coupled to cortical activity can be monitored. Near-infrared spectroscopy is used to measure regional changes in oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and cytochrome aa3 noninvasively and continuously. The studies in this fifth part of a review article, which have been carried out mainly by the research group of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine at the Medical University of Graz, demonstrate that near-infrared spectroscopy is a suitable technique for the assessment of cortical changes in response to varying forms of acupuncture. The method is likely to play an important role in providing new insights into the effects of acupuncture on brain function.

Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2006;34(4):327-45.

Bioengineering assessment of acupuncture, part 4: functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Litscher G.

Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria. gerhard.litscher@meduni-graz.at

In the fourth part of this review article, research on the topic of acupuncture and functional magnetic resonance imaging is described. Needle as well as painless laserneedle stimulation have led to significant changes in different areas of the brain. With the help of modern biomedical engineering equipment and neuroscience, some of acupuncture’s secrets have begun to be revealed. The neuro-modulating effects require further investigation in a larger population sample.

Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2006;34(4):295-326.

Bioengineering assessment of acupuncture, part 3: ultrasound.

Litscher G.

Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria. gerhard.litscher@meduni-graz.at

Multidirectional transcranial ultrasound monitoring can be used to prove quantifiable effects of acupuncture stimulation in the brain. This third part of the review article gives a short introduction in monitoring cerebral blood flow velocity and summarizes the scientific results in this area of research. New constructions from the Medical University of Graz that can be used for evidence-based computer-controlled acupuncture are described. With these new methods and concepts, reproducible effects of needle and laserneedle acupuncture stimulation in cerebral blood flow velocity can be objectified for the first time.

Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2006;34(4):273-94.

Bioengineering assessment of acupuncture, part 2: monitoring of microcirculation.

Litscher G.

Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria. gerhard.litscher@meduni-graz.at

In the second part of the review article, monitoring of microcirculation during acupuncture is described. Laser Doppler flowmetry and laser Doppler imaging provide easy-to-use, noninvasive, real-time measurements of local tissue blood flow. Using these types of biomedical equipment, it is possible to quantify and objectify peripheral changes in microcirculation during different methods of acupuncture stimulation (manual needle acupuncture and laserneedle acupuncture).

Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2006;34(1):1-22.

Bioengineering assessment of acupuncture, part 1: thermography.

Litscher G.

Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. gerhard.litscher@meduni-graz.at

In Western society, acupuncture is becoming a popular complementary method to medical treatment. However, a scientific understanding of acupuncture has not been completely developed but will absolutely be necessary for the increased acceptance of acupuncture by the Western medical community. This first part of the review article describes, in a general introduction, milestones of acupuncture research within the last 30 years and in a specific part the possibilities and limitations of infrared thermography, a noninvasive biomedical engineering method, within acupuncture research.

Anesth Analg. 2006 Jun;102(6):1745-51.

Electroencephalogram–entropy and acupuncture.

Litscher G.

Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. gerhard.litscher@meduni-graz.at

Computer-based measuring of the level of sedation and hypnosis is difficult and has proven to be challenging. The electroencephalogram (EEG) has been proposed as a potential method. Response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE) are multifactor, dimensionless parameters of a new technology of EEG monitoring, and we investigated them for the first time in acupuncture research within this study. Both parameters have been alleged to reflect changes in the clinical state of sedation. Two different acupuncture schemes were tested in a randomized crossover trial with nine healthy volunteers (mean age +/- sd, 28.8 +/- 3.6 yr; 25-36 yr). Applying and stimulating acupuncture needles or performing laserneedle acupuncture at special sedation points decreased RE and SE significantly (P < or = 0.01; paired t-test) compared with the reference interval before acupuncture. In contrast, acupuncture of points for increasing “Qi-energy” did not decrease parameters of entropy. Specific acupuncture schemes produce specific, reproducible, and quantifiable effects on entropy parameters in the EEG. Therefore, entropy measurements during acupuncture seem to be worthy of further evaluation with a larger series of subjects.

Biomed Eng Online. 2005 Jun 15;4(1):38.

Infrared thermography fails to visualize stimulation-induced meridian-like structures.

Litscher G.

Biomedical Engineering and Research in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Austria. gerhard.litscher@meduni-graz.at

BACKGROUND: According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) the vital energy flows through a system of channels also called meridians. Generally accepted proof for meridians cannot be considered as being given. Goal of this study was to examine whether possible stimulation-induced meridian-like structures, as recently described by other authors, can be visualized and objectified simultaneously at different infrared wavelength ranges. METHODS: The study analyses evidence for the existence of acupuncture-specific, meridian-like artifacts in 6 healthy volunteers (mean age +/- SD 28.7 +/- 3.7 years; range 25 – 35 years). Two infrared cameras at different wavelength ranges were used for thermographic control of possible stimulation effects (moxibustion-cigar, infrared warmth stimulation, needle and laserneedle stimulation). In addition to thermography, temperature and microcirculatory parameters were registered at a selected point using laser-Doppler flowmetry. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After moxibustion (or infrared light stimulation) of the body at 2 – 5 microm and 7.5 – 13 microm ranges, different structures appear on thermographic images of the human body which are technical artifacts and which are not identical to what are known as meridians in all textbooks of TCM. Further scientific studies are required regarding the possible visualization of meridians.

Neurol Res. 2005 Jun;27(4):423-8.

An NIRS matrix for detecting and correcting cerebral oxygen desaturation events during surgery and neuroendovascular procedures.

Schwarz G, Litscher G, Delgado PA, Klein GE.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Medical University of Graz, Austria. gerhard.schwarz@meduni-graz.at

BACKGROUND: Transcranial cerebral oximetry was developed for early detection of cerebral hypoxia and to avoid cerebral dysfunctions. However, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data obtained during surgery are subject to intrinsic and extrinsic influences that have to be accounted for when interpreting the recordings. METHODS: We developed an NIRS matrix to provide brief information for specific intervention to correct changes of cerebral oxygen saturation (COS). Selected vital data and the descriptors of cerebrovascular and neurofunctional status were linked to logistic chains. RESULTS: The matrix is horizontally and vertically grouped and contains five descriptors: 1. change of COS; 2. key variable (parameter related to the change of COS); 3. associated parameters (vital data that do not cause COS alterations); 4. interpretation of values or preconditions most probably due to COS changes; and 5. the intervention most likely to normalize the COS or return it to baseline. The descriptors are grouped horizontally to a logistics chain. CONCLUSION: The modular expandable NIRS matrix we describe has promise for clinical use in surgical, neurointerventional, and anaesthesiological contexts.

Neurol Res. 2004 Sep;26(6):698-701.

Pseudoparadoxical dissociation of cerebral oxygen saturation and cerebral blood flow velocity after acupuncture in a woman with cerebrovascular dementia: a case report.

Schwarz G, Litscher G, Sandner-Kiesling A.

Department of Anaesthesiology for Neurosurgical and Craniofacial Surgery and Intensive Care, Medical University of Graz, Austria. gerhard.schwartz@uni-graz.at

Acupuncture can increase both cerebral oxygen saturation and cerebral blood flow velocity. We describe a 77-year-old woman with cerebrovascular dementia in whom acupuncture reproducibly induced an increase of blood flow velocity but a decrease of regional oxygen saturation. At four of 11 acupuncture sessions, blood flow velocity was measured in the middle cerebral artery with transcranial Doppler sonography and cerebral regional oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) with transcranial near infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral blood flow velocity increased by an average of 20% (range: 7-27%) at all four study points whereas rSO(2) consistently decreased by an average of 7% (range: 4-13%). Clinical status and cognitive function improved. These findings in a patient with vascular dementia may suggest increased oxygen extraction by activated neuronal structures.

Lasers Med Sci. 2004;19(1):6-11. Epub 2004 Mar 31.

Acupuncture using laser needles modulates brain function: first evidence from functional transcranial Doppler sonography and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Litscher G, Rachbauer D, Ropele S, Wang L, Schikora D, Fazekas F, Ebner F.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research in Anesthesia and Critical Care, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036, Austria. gerhard.litscher@meduni-graz.at

Acupuncture using laser needles is a new totally painless stimulation method which has been described for the first time. This paper presents an experimental double-blind study in acupuncture research in healthy volunteers using a new optical stimulation method. We investigated 18 healthy volunteers (mean age +/- SD: 25.4 +/- 4.3 years; range: 21-30 years; 11 female, 7 male) in a randomized controlled cross-over trial using functional multidirectional transcranial ultrasound Doppler sonography (fTCD; n = 17) and performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in one volunteer. Stimulation of vision-related acupoints resulted in an increase of mean blood flow velocity in the posterior cerebral artery measured by fTCD [before stimulation (mean +/- SE): 42.2 +/- 2.5; during stimulation: 44.2 +/- 2.6; after stimulation: 42.3 +/- 2.4 cm/s, n.s.]. Mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery decreased insignificantly. Significant changes (p < 0.05) of brain activity were demonstrated in the occipital and frontal gyrus by fMRI. Optical stimulation using properly adjusted laser needles has the advantage that the stimulation cannot be felt by the patient (painless and no tactile stimulation) and the operator may also be unaware of whether the stimulation system is active. Therefore true double-blind studies in acupuncture research can be performed.

Biomed Tech (Berl). 2004 May;49(5):106-10.

[Quantification of gender specific thermal sensory and pain threshold before and after laser needle stimulation]

[Article in German]

Litscher G, Wang L, Huber E, Schikora D, Schwarz G.

Abteilung für Biomedizintechnische Forschung in Anästhesie und Intensivmedizin, Medizinische Universität Graz, Osterreich. gerhard.litscher@meduni-graz.at

Abstract

Quantitative thermal sensory and pain threshold testing (QST) was performed in 29 adult healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2 +/- 2.7 years; range: 18-29 years; 20 females, 9 males) using the Thermal Sensory Analyser TSA-II (Medoc Advanced Medical Systems, Ramat Yishai, Israel, and Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA) before and after laser needle acupuncture and placebo stimulation, respectively. Significant (p < or = 0,001; t-test) gender-specific differences were seen on cold pain threshold analysis. No significant changes in parameters of thermal sensory and pain thresholds were found before and after laser needle or placebo stimulation at acupuncture points for acute pain. However, a trend towards change in the median value of cold pain sensation after laser needle stimulation (p = 0.479; paired t-test; n.s.) was seen within the group of healthy females. The influence of stimulation of acupuncture points for chronic pain on the various parameters needs to be clarified in future studies.

Biomed Tech (Berl). 2004 Jan-Feb;49(1-2):2-5.

[Histological investigation of the micromorphological effects of the application of a laser needle–results of an animal experiment]

[Article in German]

Litscher G, Nemetz W, Smolle J, Schwarz G, Schikora D, Uranüs S.

Abteilung für Biomedizintechnische Forschung in Anästhesie und Intensivmedizin, Medizinische Universität Graz. gerhard.litscher@meduni-graz.at

In an experimental animal study (Sus scrofa domesticus) we investigated the effects of the new technique of laser needle stimulation (wavelength: 685 nm; energy density: 4.6 kJ/cm2 per point; application duration: 20 min). The results revealed changes in microcirculatory parameters of the skin resulting in an increase in blood flow. However, the quality and intensity of the laser light did not induce micromorphological alterations in the skin.

Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2004 Jan;21(1):13-9.

Effects of acupressure, manual acupuncture and Laserneedle acupuncture on EEG bispectral index and spectral edge frequency in healthy volunteers.

Litscher G.

University of Graz, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research in Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Graz, Austria. gerhard.litscher@uni-graz.at

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sensory (acupressure and acupuncture) and optical stimulation (Laserneedle acupuncture) on electroencephalographic bispectral index, spectral edge frequency and a verbal sedation score. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy volunteers (mean age +/- SD: 25.5 +/- 4.0yr) were investigated during the awake state. The acupuncture point Yintang and a placebo control point were stimulated. The study was performed as a randomized, controlled and partly blinded cross-over trial. RESULTS: Bispectral index and spectral edge frequency values both decreased significantly (P < 0.001) during acupressure on Yintang to values of 62.9 (minimum 35) +/- 13.9 bispectral index and to 13.3 (minimum 2.9) +/- 8.1 Hz (spectral edge frequency right) and 13.8 (minimum 2.7) +/- 7.3 Hz (spectral edge frequency left), respectively. Bispectral index was also significantly (P < 0.05) affected by Laserneedle acupuncture and acupressure on the control point but the changes were not clinically relevant, 95.4 +/- 4 and 94.2 +/- 4.8, respectively. All interventions significantly (Yintang: P < 0.001; control point: P < 0.012) reduced verbal sedation score. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the electroencephalographic similarities of acupressure induced sedation and general anaesthesia as assessed by bispectral index and spectral edge frequency.

Neurol Res. 2003 Oct;25(7):722-8.

Cerebral and peripheral effects of laser needle-stimulation.

Litscher G.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research in Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, A-8036 Graz, Austria. gerhard.litscher@uni-graz.at

This study comprises scientific-theoretic fundamental investigations of laserneedle technology, a new and painless method of acupuncture stimulation. Laserneedles are not inserted in the skin, but are merely placed on the surface of the acupuncture point. The study documents the significant changes in peripheral microcirculation (p = 0.005) and surface temperature of the skin (p = 0.02) induced by laser, in 22 healthy volunteers (mean age 24.4 +/- 2.6 years). In addition, a randomised cross-over study to characterise the specific changes in cerebral blood flow velocity with laserneedle acupuncture (p < 0.001) is presented. These results provide important information for characterising the effects of laserneedle acupuncture.

Lasers Med Sci. 2002;17(4):289-95.

Cerebral vascular effects of non-invasive laserneedles measured by transorbital and transtemporal Doppler sonography.

Litscher G, Schikora D.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research in Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Graz, Austria. gerhard.litscher@uni-graz.at

Laserneedles represent a new non-invasive optical stimulation method which is described for the first time in this paper. We investigated 27 healthy volunteers (mean age+/-SD: 25.15+/-4.12 years; range: 21-38 years; 14 female, 13 male) in a randomised cross-over trial to study differences between laserneedle acupuncture and manual needle acupuncture in specific cerebral parameters. Mean blood flow velocity ( v(m)) showed specific and significant increases in the ophthalmic artery during laserneedle stimulation ( p=0.01) and during manual needle stimulation ( p<0.001) at vision-related acupoints. At the same time insignificant alterations in v(m) were found in the middle cerebral artery for both acupuncture methods. The eight laserneedles used in this study were arranged at the end of the optical fibres. Each fibre was connected to a semiconductor laser diode emitting at 685 nm with a primary output power of about 55 mW. Optical stimulation using properly adjusted laserneedles has the advantage that the stimulation can hardly be felt by the patient and the operator may also be unaware of whether the laserneedle system is active, and therefore true double blind studies in acupuncture research can be performed.

ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW LEVEL LASER LIGHT (LLLL) IN THE INNER EAR

Reproduced here through the kind permission of Dr. Lutz Wilden
Examined by pre- and posttherapeutical audiometry courses of air and bone conductions
Lutz Wilden*
*Private office Dr. med. Lutz Wilden, Kurallee 16, D-94072 Bad Füssing, Tel:+49 8531 980198, Fax:+49 8531980119, e-mail: info@dr.wilden.de.

 (db = decibel; j = joule; kc = kilocycle; nm = nanometer)

ABSTRACT
A) The objective of the study was the documentation of the biostimulative effects of LLLL in high energetical dosages (measured in j) by audiometry changes of a statistically relevant number of patients. B) The energy was transmitted with 3 laser diodes with a wave length of 830 nm and 3 diodes with a wave length of 635 nm; it was administered via meatus and mastoid. The examination and therapy included 348 patients and 215 right and 187 left inner ear organs (cochlea). 171 organs were female, 231 were male. Their average age at the beginning of the therapy was 56.9 years; the average duration of their disease was 5.9 years. 97.3 % suffered from tinnitus. The examination started on 24 june 1996 and ended on 9 february 1999. The average treatment phase lasted 61.5 days. The average duration of the therapy was 11.8 hours; the average quantity of the transmitted energy was 6732 j. Before every therapy series with LLLL the patients actual hearing capacity (air and bone conductions) was examined by audiometry. At the end of each therapy series their hearing capacity was examined by the same method for a second time. The statistical analysis consisted of the arithmetical evaluation of a mean value of all test data over 12 frequencies as far as air and bone conductions were concerned, the drawing up of frequency intervals (low = 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 kc, middle = 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 kc, and high = 4, 6, 8 and 12 kc) and the grouping of the patients according to age, duration of the disease, quantity of the transmitted energy and the relative total reduction of the necessary sound volume in db. In cases of deafness 125 db were used as an auxiliary numeric value. C) The hearing capacity of the patients was ameliorated in all frequency sectors (average value = 20.6 %). The best db-reductions were obtained in the low frequency sector (9.3 db) and in the high frequency sector (11.2 db). There was a close (and biologically plausible) correlation as far as the amelioration of the hearing capacity and the age of the patients and the duration of their disease were concerned; this correlation was the higher, the more energy was transfered on the whole. D) If LLLL is administered in sufficiently high dosages to the inner ear (cochlea), it is possible to obtain and document medicinically significant biostimulative effects.Introduction
According to a study of the university of Cologne1) by 2030 every second German will be suffering from impairments of the inner ear. Even at the present time, the number of people all over the world, who are inflicted with long-standing impairments or acute diseases of the inner ear, amounts to millions. The basic diagnostic for the documentation of the functional quality of the cochlea is the audiometry. The correlation of organopathological examinations of the cochlea and pathological audiometry results is illustrated by scientific papers2)
The audiometry belongs to the diagnostical standard equipment of medical offices and acousticians and is universally being used as a basic diagnostic by trade operative associations and industrial medicine for the purpose of examinations and appraisements. This is why it seemed approriate to use this method, which is both economical and easy on the patient, to verify the biostimulative effects of LLLL on the inner ear.Nowadays, the prevailing measures to give therapy to patients with a reduced hearing capacity are the administration of non-specific medicaments that stimulate the blood circulation respectively the utilization of technical equipment such as sound amplifiers (hearing aids) or – in severe cases – electronically operated artificial inner ear appliances.At present, a therapy that ameliorates the biological qualitiy of the sensory cells of the cochlea and thus increases the hearing capacity is being cold-shouldered by the overwhelming majority of physicians.Although the manifold clinical and experimental studies of the international low level laser literature3)4) and the penetration capacity of LLLL into the inner ear 5), so far there was no statistical inquiry about the therapy with high dosages of LLLL, which is backed up by a sufficient amount of audiometrical data and takes into account a statistically relevant number of patients respectively inner ear organs.
include examinations of the therapy of inner ear diseasesMaterial and methods
The data of this study were collected from patients, whose further treatment – within the scope of conventional therapies – was predominantly regarded as futile when they started the low level laser therapy (LLLT). The patients all received an out-patient treatment, which consisted exclusively of a monotherapy. They were advised to take reasonable prophylactic measures against noise during (and after) the therapy. Possibly existing medicamentous or masker therapies were discontinued. Patients with hearing aids were advised to reduce the adjustments according to their improving hearing quality.
The energy was transmitted by 3 laser diodes with a wave length of 830 nm und 3 diodes with a wave length of 635 nm; it was administered via meatus and mastoid. The statistical analysis consisted of the arithmetical evaluation of a mean value of all audiometrical data over 12 frequencies as far as air and bone conductions were concerned, the drawing up of frequency intervals (low = 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 kc, middle = 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 kc, and high = 4, 6, 8 and 12 kc and the grouping of the patients according to age, duration of the disease, quantity of the transmitted energy and the relative total reduction of the necessary sound volume in db. In cases of deafness 125 db were used as an auxiliary numeric value.
In the case of the initial audiometrical results (pretherapeutical findings) the evaluation of the mean value of all readings reveals a clearly reduced average course of the hearing curves of the air and bone conductions over all frequencies, with low points in the frequency sector around 6 kc and the frequency sector around 12 kc (sensorineural hardness of hearing, oblique descension).As expected, the bone conduction is situated above the air conduction in all frequencies. Occasional intersections of the air and bone conductions are only to be found in the frequency sector between 6 and 8 kc; this phenomenon, which is known from individual audiometries and can be observed on the mean curve, is due to an increasing loss of the differentiation capacity of the cochleas sensory cells within the range of higher-grade biological quality reductions of the organ of Corti.In the case of the final audiometrical results (posttherapeutical findings) the evaluation of the mean value of all readings reveals a clearly and symmetrically ameliorated average course of the hearing curves of the air and bone conductions over all frequencies as compared with the pretherapeutical course (amelioration of the sensorineural hardness of hearing with a reduction of the oblique descension). As expected, the bone conduction is once again situated above the air conduction in all frequencies; the intersection phenomena in the frequency sector between 6 and 8 kc show a downward tendency.
The diagram of the average total reduction (db) of the air and bone conductions shows a significant amelioration of the hearing capacity in the low and high frequency sector and a more pronounced amelioration of the air conduction as compared with the bone conduction in the lower frequency sector.Clinically, this can be interpreted to the effect that, apart from its general therapeutical value, the LLLL also exerts a positive influence on the widespread sound conduction disturbances in this frequency sector, which are indicated by degenerative changes of the middle ear (for instance, otosclerotic processes.)The highest reduction is to be found in the low frequency sector (9.3 db when there are 0.25 kc in the air conduction; 6.4 db when there are 0.124 kc in the bone conduction) and in the high frequency sector (10.9 db when there are 12 kc in the air conduction; 11.2 db when there are 12 kc in the bone conduction).
The average reduction (improved hearing) of the sound pressure necessary for the perception of sounds within a given frequency totals a mean value of 7.2 db over all frequenciesair(air = 7.8 db; bones = 6.7 db). Altogether, this corresponds with an average amelioration of the hearing capacity of<20.6 %(air = 20.5%;bones = 20.6%); for further figures compare appendix, table1.
The comparison of all pre- and posttherapeutical readings over all frequencies reveals statistically highly significant results in the case of the air and bone conductions.The values of the air conduction, which are slightly higher as those of the bone conduction, indicate that the LLLL has additional positive therapeutical effects on the sound conducting structures of the middle ear.
The grouping of the readings according to age groups and 3 frequency intervals results in findings that are biologically plausible as far as both the air and the bone conductions is concerned. In other words, the patient group with the highest average age (72.4 years) finds itself in the most disadvantageous starting position; the patient group with the lowest average age (37.9 years) finds itself in the most advantageous starting position.This applies to all 3 frequency intervals. The data also show that – in spite of the respective starting position – all age groups profit from the biostimulative effects of the LLLL in a relatively equal way. This holds good for both the air and the bone conduction.If one takes into consideration the energy quantity (j) transmitted in order to reach these results, it is obvious that the eldest age group needs the largest quantity of transfered energy. However, this seems to be biologically plausible as well.
As to the grouping of the readings according to the duration of the disease and 3 frequency intervals, the patient group with the shortest duration of the disease (0.6 years) has the best initial values and obtains the best final results with the smallest quantity of transfered energy. The patient group with the longest duration of the disease (14.5 years) has the poorest initial values and furthermore needs the largest quantity of transfered energy. This holds good for both the air and the bone conduction over all frequencies. At the same time, a detailed analysis of the data reveals that – in spite of the respective duration of the disease – all patient groups profit from the biostimulative effects of the LLLL in a relatively equal way. It has to be emphasized, though, that once again the most difficult patient group (average duration of the disease 14.5 years) needed the largest quantity of transfered energy.
The grouping of the readings according to energy quantities reveals a clear correlation between the total quantity of the transfered energy and the therapeutical results that were obtained. The larger the quantitity of transfered energy, the higher the db-reductions that could be observed. This applies to both the air and the bone conduction in all 3 frequency intervals.

Fig. 6b clearly shows the correlative (parallel) connection between the total quantity of transfered energy and the total reduction.
Even if expressed in percentages, the mean values of the respective groupings demonstrate that the smallest amount of transfered energy (6188 j) results in the lowest relative reduction (5.4 %), whereas the largest quantitity of transfered energy (9007 j) brings about the highest relative reaction (46.4 %).The highest correlation coefficient of 0.91 (relative total reduction in relation to total quantity of transfered energy) thus confirms the observations implied by the foregoing groupings according to age, duration of the disease and total quantity of transfered energy.In the whole course of the therapy no side effects whatsoever could be observed.In some of the cases, however, the LLLT of the inner ear organ presented in this paper caused specific individual reactions such as temporary vertigo respectively the disappearance of an existing otogenic vertigo, the momentary appearance respectively disappearance of a sensation of pressure in the ear and changes respectively the reduction or disappearance of a prevailing dysacusia and/or tinnitus, which had to be interpreted correctly with regard to the patient. ConclusionsIf LLLL is transmitted to the inner ear (cochlea) in sufficiently high dosages, it is possible to obtain and document medicinically significant biostimulative effects.In this respect, the results of the study at hand not only refer to the fundamental working model of the cellular energy transfer6) from 1998, which was based on quantum mechanics, but confirm its conclusions as well, namely, that cellular regeneration processes do take place, if the mitochondria in question are stimulated to an increased production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by sufficiently large quantities of LLLL.

To what extent subsequent LLLTs lead to additional organic betterments (on average > than 20.6 %) is left up to future studies. The same applies for an augmentation of the total quantity of the transfered energy in the course of the treatment phases or per unit; in the latter case further technological developements on the part of the laser industry are indispensable, though.

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