Photobiomodulation therapy by NIR laser in persistent pain: an analytical study in the rat.
- Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health-NEUROFARBA-Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, University of Florence, VialePieraccini 6, 50139, Florence, Italy.
- Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health-NEUROFARBA-Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, University of Florence, VialePieraccini 6, 50139, Florence, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org.
- ASA Campus Joint Laboratory, ASA Res. Division-Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences “Mario Serio”, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
Over the past three decades, physicians have used laser sources for the management of different pain conditions obtaining controversial results that call for further investigations. In order to evaluate the pain relieving possibilities of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT), we tested two near infrared (NIR) laser systems, with different power, against various kinds of persistent hyperalgesia animal models. In rats, articular pain was reproduced by the intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA) and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), while compressive neuropathy was modelled by the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI). In MIA and CFA models, (NIR) laser (MLS-Mphi, ASA S.r.l., Vicenza, Italy) application was started 14 days after injury and was performed once a day for a total of 13 applications. In MIA-treated animals, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of laser began 5 min after treatment and vanished after 60 min. The subsequent applications evoked similar effects. In CFA-treated rats, laser efficacy started 5 min after treatment and disappeared after 180 min. In rats that underwent CCI, two treatment protocols with similar fluence but different power output were tested using a new experimental device called Multiwave Locked System laser (MLS-HPP). Treatments began 7 days after injury and were performed during 3 weeks for a total of 10 applications. Both protocols reduced mechanical hyperalgesia and hindlimb weight bearing alterations until 60 min after treatment with a higher efficacy recorded for the animals treated using the higher power output. In conclusion, this study supports laser therapy as a potential treatment for immediate relief of chronic articular or neuropathic pain.
Photobiomodulation therapy in the modulation of inflammatory mediators and bradykinin receptors in an experimental model of acute osteoarthritis.
- 1Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Rua Vergueiro 235, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
- 2Postgraduate Program in Medicine Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
- 3Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
- 4Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Rua Vergueiro 235, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. email@example.com.
- 5Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. firstname.lastname@example.org.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on inflammatory indicators, i.e., inflammatory mediators (TNF-a and CINC-1), and pain characterized by hyperalgesia and B1 and B2 receptor activation at 6, 24, and 48 h after papain-induced osteoarthritis (OA) in rats. Fifty-four rats were subjected to hyperalgesia evaluations and then divided randomly into three groups-a control group and two groups OA and OA PBMT group by using laser parameters at wavelength (808 nm), output power (50 mW), energy per point (4 Joules), power density (1.78 W/cm2), laser beam (0.028 cm2), and energy density (144 J/cm2)-the induction of osteoarthritis was then performed with 20-ul injections of a 4 % papain solution dissolved in 10 ul of saline solution, to which 10 ul of cysteine solution (0.03 M). The statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s post hoc test for comparisons between the 6, 24, and 48 h and team points within each group, and between the control, injury, and PBMT groups, and p<0.05 was considered to indicate a significant difference. The hyperalgesia was evaluated at 6, 24, and 48 h after the injury. PBMT at a wavelength of 808 nm and doses of 4 J, administered afterward, promotes increase at the threshold of pressure stimulus at 6, 24, and 48 h after application and promote cytokine attenuation levels (TNF and CINC-1) and bradykinin receptor (B1 and B2) along the experimental period. We conclude that photobiomodulation therapy was able to promote the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a and CINC-1, to reduce the gene and protein expression of the bradykinin receptor (B1 and B2), as well as increasing the stimulus response threshold of pressure in an experimental model of acute osteoarthritis.
Effects of photobiomodulation therapy, pharmacological therapy, and physical exercise as single and/or combined treatment on the inflammatory response induced by experimental osteoarthritis.
- 1Laboratory of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1524, Butantan, São Paulo, SP, 05508-900, Brazil. email@example.com.
- 2Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences and Post Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
- 3Laboratory of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1524, Butantan, São Paulo, SP, 05508-900, Brazil.
- 4Biomedical Engineering Research and Post-Graduate Center, Mogi das Cruzes University (UMC), Mogi das Cruzes, SP, Brazil.
Osteoarthritis (OA) triggers increased levels of inflammatory markers, including prostaglandin (PG) E2 and proinflammatory cytokines. The elevation of cytokine levels is closely associated with increased articular tissue degeneration. Thus, the use of combination therapies may presumably be able to enhance the effects on the modulation of inflammatory markers. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT), physical exercise, and topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use on the inflammatory process after they were applied either alone or in different combinations. OA was induced by intra-articular papain injection in the knee of rats. After 21 days, the animals began treatment with a topical NSAID and/or with physical exercise and/or PBMT. Treatments were performed three times a week for eight consecutive weeks, totaling 24 therapy sessions. Analysis of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) gene expression; interleukin (IL)-1B, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) protein expression; and PGE2 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted. Our results showed that PBMT alone and Exerc + PBMT significantly reduced IL-1B gene expression (p<0.05) while no treatment changed both IL-6 and TNF-a gene expression. Treatment with NSAID alone, PBMT alone, Exerc + PBMT, and NSAID + PBMT reduced IL-1B protein expression (p<0.05). All therapies significantly reduced IL-6 and TNF-a protein expression (p<0.05) compared with the OA group. Similarly, all therapies, except Exerc, reduced the levels of PGE2 (p<0.05) compared with the OA group. The results from the present study indicate that treatment with PBMT is more effective in modulating the inflammatory process underlying OA when compared with the other therapies tested.
Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy in an Experimental Model of Osteoarthritis in Rats Evaluated Through Raman Spectroscopy.
Objective: This work aimed to investigate the biochemical changes associated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) using 660 and 780?nm, on a well-established experimental model of osteoarthritis (OA) in the knees of rats with induced collagenase, using histomorphometry and Raman spectroscopy.
Material and methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (GCON, n=9), collagenase without treatment (GCOL, n=9), collagenase with LLLT 660?nm treatment (G660, n=8), and collagenase with LLLT 780?nm treatment (G780, n=10). LLLT protocol was: 30?mW power output, 10?sec irradiation time, 0.04?cm2 spot size, 0.3?J energy, 0.75?W/cm2 irradiance, and 7.5?J/cm2 fluence per session per day, during 14 days. Then, knees were withdrawn and submitted to histomorphometry and Raman spectroscopy analysis. Principal components analysis (PCA) and Mahalanobis distance were employed to characterize the spectral findings.
Results: Histomorphometry revealed a significant increase in the amount of collagen III for the group irradiated with 660?nm. The Raman bands at 1247, 1273, and 1453?cm-1 (from principal component score PC2), attributed to collagen type II, and 1460?cm-1 (from PC3), attributed to collagen type III, suggested that the LLLT causes acceleration in cellular activity, especially on the cells that repair cartilage, accelerating the breakdown of cartilage destroyed by collagenase and stimulating the fibroblast to synthesize repairing collagen III.
Conclusions: LLLT accelerated the initial breakdown of cartilage destroyed by collagenase and stimulated the fibroblast to synthesize the repairing collagen III, suggesting a beneficial effect of LLLT on OA.
Low-level laser therapy in different stages of rheumatoid arthritis: a histological study.
Post Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Rua Vergueiro, 235, 01504-001, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Treatment of RA is very complex, and in the past years, some studies have investigated the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in treatment of RA. However, it remains unknown if LLLT can modulate early and late stages of RA. With this perspective in mind, we evaluated histological aspects of LLLT effects in different RA progression stages in the knee. It was performed a collagen-induced RA model, and 20 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: a non-injured and non-treated control group, a RA non-treated group, a group treated with LLLT (780 nm, 22 mW, 0.10 W/cm(2), spot area of 0.214 cm(2), 7.7 J/cm(2), 75 s, 1.65 J per point, continuous mode) from 12th hour after collagen-induced RA, and a group treated with LLLT from 7th day after RA induction with same LLLT parameters. LLLT treatments were performed once per day. All animals were sacrificed at the 14th day from RA induction and articular tissue was collected in order to perform histological analyses related to inflammatory process. We observed that LLLT both at early and late RA progression stages significantly improved mononuclear inflammatory cells, exudate protein, medullary hemorrhage, hyperemia, necrosis, distribution of fibrocartilage, and chondroblasts and osteoblasts compared to RA group (p?<?0.05). We can conclude that LLLT is able to modulate inflammatory response both in early as well as in late progression stages of RA.
Clin Rehabil. 2011 Dec 14. [Epub ahead of print]
Efficacy of low level laser therapy associated with exercises in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind study.
Department of Speech Therapy, Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, School of Medicine, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Objectives: To estimate the effects of low level laser therapy in combination with a programme of exercises on pain, functionality, range of motion, muscular strength and quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.
Design: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with sequential allocation of patients to different treatment groups.
Setting: Special Rehabilitation Services.Subjects: Forty participants with knee osteoarthritis, 2-4 osteoarthritis degree, aged between 50 and 75 years and both genders.Intervention: Participants were randomized into one of two groups: the laser group (low level laser therapy dose of 3 J and exercises) or placebo group (placebo laser and exercises).
Main measures: Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), functionality using the Lequesne questionnaire, range of motion with a universal goniometer, muscular strength using a dynamometer, and activity using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) questionnaire at three time points: (T1) baseline, (T2) after the end of laser therapy (three weeks) and (T3) the end of the exercises (11 weeks).
Results: When comparing groups, significant differences in the activity were also found (P = 0.03). No other significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in other variables. In intragroup analysis, participants in the laser group had significant improvement, relative to baseline, on pain (P = 0.001), range of motion (P = 0.01), functionality (P = 0.001) and activity (P < 0.001). No significant improvement was seen in the placebo group.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that low level laser therapy when associated with exercises is effective in yielding pain relief, function and activity on patients with osteoarthritis of the knees.
Lasers Med Sci. 2011 Apr 12. [Epub ahead of print]
Infrared (810-nm) low-level laser therapy on rat experimental knee inflammation.
Laboratory of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 05508-900.
Arthritis of the knee is the most common type of joint inflammatory disorder and it is associated with pain and inflammation of the joint capsule. Few studies address the effects of the 810-nm laser in such conditions. Here we investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT; infrared, 810-nm) in experimentally induced rat knee inflammation. Thirty male Wistar rats (230-250 g) were anesthetized and injected with carrageenan by an intra-articular route. After 6 and 12 h, all animals were killed by CO(2) inhalation and the articular cavity was washed for cellular and biochemical analysis. Articular tissue was carefully removed for real-time PCR analysis in order to evaluate COX-1 and COX-2 expression. LLLT was able to significantly inhibit the total number of leukocytes, as well as the myeloperoxidase activity with 1, 3, and 6 J (Joules) of energy. This result was corroborated by cell counting showing the reduction of polymorphonuclear cells at the inflammatory site. Vascular extravasation was significantly inhibited at the higher dose of energy of 10 J. Both COX-1 and 2 gene expression were significantly enhanced by laser irradiation while PGE(2) production was inhibited. Low-level laser therapy operating at 810 nm markedly reduced inflammatory signs of inflammation but increased COX-1 and 2 gene expression. Further studies are necessary to investigate the possible production of antiinflammatory mediators by COX enzymes induced by laser irradiation in knee inflammation.
Photomed Laser Surg. 2010 Feb;28(1):125-9.
Helium-neon laser reduces the inflammatory process of arthritis.
Rubio CR<>, Cremonezzi D<>, Moya M<>, Soriano F<>, Palma J<>, Campana V<>.
Cátedra de Física Biomédica, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
OBJECTIVE: A histological study of the anti-inflammatory effect of helium-neon laser in models of arthropathies induced by hydroxyapatite and calcium pyrophosphate in rats. BACKGROUND: Crystal deposition diseases are inflammatory pathologies induced by cellular reaction to the deposit of crystals in the joints. METHODS: Fifty-six Suquia strain rats were distributed in seven groups. Two mg of each crystal diluted in 0.05 ml physiologic solution were injected six times in each back limb joint, during two weeks on alternate days. Eight J/cm(2) were applied daily to the crystal-injected joints on five consecutive days. The joints were cut and put in 10% formaldehyde, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and observed by light microscopy. The percentage of area with inflammatory infiltrates was determined in five optical microscopy photographs (100X) for each group and analyzed using the Axionvision 4.6 program. A Pearson’s Chi Squared test was applied, with significance level set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Both crystals produced an inflammatory process in the osteoarticular structures, consisting of predominantly mononuclear infiltration, fibrosis, and granulomas of foreign body-type giant cells containing phagocytosed remains of crystals. In the arthritic joints treated with laser, a marked decrease (p < 0.0001) was found in the percentage of area with inflammatory infiltrates, although the granulomas remained in a less ostensible form, with adipose tissue cells, fibrosis bands with light residual inflammation, and an absence of or very few crystals. Laser alone or physiologic solution injection did not produce histological changes. CONCLUSIONS: Helium-neon laser reduced the intensity of the inflammatory process in the arthritis model induced by hydroxyapatite and calcium pyrophosphate crystals.
Photomed Laser Surg. 2009 Feb;27(1):79-84.
Inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in experimental crystalopathy: their modification by photstimulation.
Rubio CR<>, Simes JC<>, Moya M<>, Soriano F<>, Palma JA<>, Campana V<>.
Cátedra de Física Biomédica, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
Crystalopathies are inflammatory pathologies caused by cellular reactions to the deposition of crystals in the joints. The anti-inflammatory effect of the helium-neon (He-Ne) laser and that of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) diclofenac, meloxicam, celecoxib, and rofecoxib was studied in acute and chronic arthritis produced by hydroxyapatite and calcium pyrophosphate in rats. The presence of the markers fibrinogen, L-citrulline, nitric oxide, and nitrotyrosine was determined. Crystals were injected into the posterior limb joints of the rats. A dose of 8 J/cm(2) of energy from an He-Ne laser was applied for 3 d in some groups and for 5 d in other groups. The levels of some of the biomarkers were determined by spectrophotometry, and that of nitrotyrosine was determined by ELISA. For statistical analysis, Fisher’s exact test was used, and p +/- 0.05 was considered significant. In arthritic rats, the fibrinogen, L-citrulline, nitric oxide, and nitrotyrosine levels increased in comparison to controls and to the laser-treated arthritic groups (p +/- 0.001), (p +/- 0.001), (p +/- 0.02), and (p +/- 0.01), respectively. When comparing fibrinogen from arthritic rats with disease induced by hydroxyapatite with undiseased and arthritic rats treated with NSAIDs, the He-Ne laser decreased levels to values similar to those seen in controls (p +/- 0.01). Inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in experimental crystalopathy are positively modified by photobiostimulation.
Photomed Laser Surg. 2009 Aug;27(4):577-84.
The effect of low-level laser in knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Hegedus B<>, Viharos L<>, Gervain M<>, Gálfi M<>. Physio- and Balneotherapy Center, Orosháza-Gyopáros, Hungary. firstname.lastname@example.org
INTRODUCTION: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is thought to have an analgesic effect as well as a biomodulatory effect on microcirculation. This study was designed to examine the pain-relieving effect of LLLT and possible microcirculatory changes measured by thermography in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with mild or moderate KOA were randomized to receive either LLLT or placebo LLLT. Treatments were delivered twice a week over a period of 4 wk with a diode laser (wavelength 830 nm, continuous wave, power 50 mW) in skin contact at a dose of 6 J/point. The placebo control group was treated with an ineffective probe (power 0.5 mW) of the same appearance. Before examinations and immediately, 2 wk, and 2 mo after completing the therapy, thermography was performed (bilateral comparative thermograph by AGA infrared camera); joint flexion, circumference, and pressure sensitivity were measured; and the visual analogue scale was recorded. RESULTS: In the group treated with active LLLT, a significant improvement was found in pain (before treatment [BT]: 5.75; 2 mo after treatment : 1.18); circumference (BT: 40.45; AT: 39.86); pressure sensitivity (BT: 2.33; AT: 0.77); and flexion (BT: 105.83; AT: 122.94). In the placebo group, changes in joint flexion and pain were not significant. Thermographic measurements showed at least a 0.5 degrees C increase in temperature–and thus an improvement in circulation compared to the initial values. In the placebo group, these changes did not occur. CONCLUSION: Our results show that LLLT reduces pain in KOA and improves microcirculation in the irradiated area.
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2009;(4):20-3.
Prevention of occupational diseases of lower limbs joints
[Article in Russian]
Ushkova IN<>, Mal’kova NIu<>.
Study covered 84 personal computer users, 48 jewelry female polishers, 92 metallic ships body assemblers. Objective investigations revealed lower limbs joints stiffness. After prevention measures based on low-intensity laser rays, the joints functions recovered.
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2009;(4):18-20.
Prevention of upper-limbs diseases in workers subjected to occupational hazards
[Article in Russian]
Mal’kova NIu<>, Chernushevich NI<>, Ushkova MK<>.
Study covered 120 personal computer users, 98 jewelry female polishers, 64 metallic ships body assemblers. Objective investigations revealed joints pain on palpation, joints function disorders, hypoesthesia of finger tips. After prevention measures based on low-intensity laser rays, the joints functions recovered, hands edema disappeared, hypoesthesia cleared.
Photomed Laser Surg. 2008 Apr;26(2):99-105.
Low-power laser treatment in patients with frozen shoulder: preliminary results.
Laboratory of Health, Fitness, and Rehabilitation Management, Faculty of Humam Movement and Quality of Life, Peloponnese University, Sparta, Greece. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: In this study I sought to test the efficacy of low-power laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with frozen shoulder. Background Data: The use of low-level laser energy has been recommended for the management of a variety of musculoskeletal disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-three patients with frozen shoulder were randomly assigned into one of two groups. In the active laser group (n = 31), patients were treated with a 810-nm Ga-Al-As laser with a continuous output of 60 mW applied to eight points on the shoulder for 30 sec each, for a total dose of 1.8 J per point and 14.4 J per session. In the placebo group (n = 32), patients received placebo laser treatment. During 8 wk of treatment, the patients in each group received 12 sessions of laser or placebo, two sessions per week (for weeks 1-4), and one session per week (for weeks 5-8). RESULTS: Relative to the placebo group, the active laser group had: (1) a significant decrease in overall, night, and activity pain scores at the end of 4 wk and 8 wk of treatment, and at the end of 8 wk additional follow-up (16 wk post-randomization); (2) a significant decrease in shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) scores and Croft shoulder disability questionnaire scores at those same intervals; (3) a significant decrease in disability of arm, shoulder, and hand questionnaire (DASH) scores at the end of 8 wk of treatment, and at 16 wk posttreatment; and (4) a significant decrease in health-assessment questionnaire (HAQ) scores at the end of 4 wk and 8 wk of treatment. There was some improvement in range of motion, but this did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that laser treatment was more effective in reducing pain and disability scores than placebo at the end of the treatment period, as well as at follow-up.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Jul 8;8:145
Measuring physiotherapy performance in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective study.
Jamtvedt G<>, Dahm KT<>, Holm I<>, Flottorp S<>.
Norwegian Knowledge Centre for Health Services, PO Box 7004, St. Olavs plass, 0103Oslo, Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Patients with knee osteoarthritis [OA] are commonly treated by physiotherapists in primary care. Measuring physiotherapy performance is important before developing strategies to improve quality. The purpose of this study was to measure physiotherapy performance in patients with knee OA by comparing clinical practice to evidence from systematic reviews. METHODS: We developed a data-collection form and invited all private practitioners in Norway [n = 2798] to prospectively collect data on the management of one patient with knee OA through 12 treatment session. Actual practice was compared to findings from an overview of systematic reviews summarising the effect of physiotherapy interventions for knee OA. RESULTS: A total of 297 physiotherapists reported their management for patients with knee OA. Exercise was the most common treatment used, provided by 98% of the physiotherapists. There is evidence of high quality that exercise reduces pain and improves function in patients with knee OA. Thirty-five percent of physiotherapists used acupuncture, low-level laser therapy or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. There is evidence of moderate quality that these treatments reduce pain in knee OA. Patient education, supported by moderate quality evidence for improving psychological outcomes, was provided by 68%. Physiotherapists used a median of four different treatment modalities for each patient. They offered many treatment modalities based on evidence of low quality or without evidence from systematic reviews, e.g. traction and mobilisation, massage and stretching. CONCLUSION: Exercise was used in almost all treatment sessions in the management of knee OA. This practice is desirable since it is supported by high quality evidence. Physiotherapists also provide several other treatment modalities based on evidence of moderate or low quality, or no evidence from systematic reviews. Ways to promote high quality evidence into physiotherapy practice should be identified and evaluated.
Lasers Surg Med. 2007 Jul;39(6):543-50.
Low-level laser therapy for zymosan-induced arthritis in rats: Importance of illumination time.
Castano AP<>, Dai T<>, Yaroslavsky I<>, Cohen R<>, Apruzzese WA<>, Smotrich MH<>, Hamblin MR<>. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed for many years that low-level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT) can ameliorate the pain, swelling, and inflammation associated with various forms of arthritis. Light is thought to be absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores leading to an increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), reactive oxygen species and/or cyclic AMP production and consequent gene transcription via activation of transcription factors. However, despite many reports about the positive effects of LLLT in arthritis and in medicine in general, its use remains controversial. For all indications (including arthritis) the optimum optical parameters have been difficult to establish and so far are unknown.
METHODS: We tested LLLT on rats that had zymosan injected into their knee joints to induce inflammatory arthritis. We compared illumination regimens consisting of a high and low fluence (3 and 30 J/cm(2)), delivered at high and low irradiance (5 and 50 mW/cm(2)) using 810-nm laser light daily for 5 days, with the positive control of conventional corticosteroid (dexamethasone) therapy.
RESULTS: Illumination with 810-nm laser was highly effective (almost as good as dexamethasone) at reducing swelling and a longer illumination time (10 or 100 minutes compared to 1 minute) was more important in determining effectiveness than either the total fluence delivered or the irradiance. LLLT induced reduction of joint swelling correlated with reduction in the inflammatory marker serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).
CONCLUSION: LLLT with 810-nm laser is highly effective in treating inflammatory arthritis in this model. Longer illumination times were more effective than short times regardless of total fluence or irradiance. These data will be of value in designing clinical trials of LLLT for various arthritides.
Photomed Laser Surg. 2007 Feb;25(1):14-20.
Laser acupuncture in knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized controlled study.
Yurtkuran M<>, Alp A<>, Konur S<>, Ozçakir S<>, Bingol U<>.
Division of Rheumatology, Uludag University Atatürk Rehabilitation Center, Bursa, Turkey. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and minimum effective dose of laser acupuncture in knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and to determine if it is superior to placebo treatment (sham) in the evaluation of clinical-functional outcome and quality of life. METHODS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled study, patients with grade 2 and 3 primary KOA were selected. Group I (n = 27) received 904-nm low-level laser irradiation with 10 mW/cm(2) power density, 4 mW output power, 0.4 cm(2) spot size, 0.48 J dose per session, and 120-sec treatment time on the medial side of the knee to the acupuncture point Sp9. Group II (n = 25) received placebo-laser therapy at the same place on the same point. Patients in both of the groups had treatment 5 days per week (total duration of therapy was 10 days) and 20 min per day. The study was comprised of a 2-week (10-session) intervention. Participants were evaluated before treatment (baseline), after treatment (2nd week), and at the 12th week. In this double-blind study, a blind examiner carried out all outcome assessments. The main outcome measures were as follows: pain on movement (pVAS), 50-foot walking time (50 foot w), knee circumference (KC), medial tenderness score (MTS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC), and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement was observed in PVAS, 50 foot w, and KC in group 1. In Group II, statistically significant improvement was observed in PVAS, 50 foot w, and WOMAC. When groups were compared with each other, the improvement observed in KC was superior in Group I at the 2(nd) week (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Laser acupuncture was found to be effective only in reducing periarticular swelling when compared with placebo laser.
J Photochem Photobiol B. 2007 Jul 27;88(1):11-5. Epub 2007 May 1
The therapeutic effect of low-level laser on repair of osteochondral defects in rabbit knee.
Kamali F<>, Bayat M<>, Torkaman G<>, Ebrahimi E<>, Salavati M<>.
Department of Physical Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tehran, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
INTRODUCTION: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to enhance collagen production and wound healing but its effect on cartilage repair from biomechanical point of view is not known yet. The aim of present study was to evaluate the biomechanical behaviour of repairing osteochondral defect in rabbits which received a pulsed low-level gallium-arsenide (Ga-As) laser irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteochondral defects with 5mm diameter and 4mm in depth induced by drilling in right femoral patellar grooves of 41 adolescent male rabbits. They were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group received pulsed Ga-As (890nm) laser irradiation with energy density of 4.8J/cm(2). The rabbits in control group received placebo LLLT with shut-down equipment. The control defects were allowed to heal spontaneously. Each group were divided into three subgroups: A, B and C. Subgroups A, B and C were sacrificed on 4, 8, and 16 weeks after surgery. The knee joint were removed, and the defects were examined biomechanically by in situ-indentation method. The thickness, instantaneous and equilibrium indentation stiffness was measured during the test. Data were analysed using ANOVA and independent sample t-test. RESULT: While no difference was observed in the repaired cartilage biomechanical properties among 4th, 8th, 16th weeks in study groups. The equilibrium indentation stiffness of experimental group was significantly higher in 8th week in comparison with control group. CONCLUSION: LLLT significantly enhances the stiffness of repairing tissue in the 8th week post injury in osteochondral defects in rabbits.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(1):CD002046.
WITHDRAWN: Low level laser therapy (Class III) for treating osteoarthritis.
Brosseau L<>, Robinson V<>, Wells G<>, Debie R<>, Gam A<>, Harman K<>, Morin M<>, Shea B<>, Tugwell P<>. University of Ottawa, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1H 8M5. email@example.com
Update of: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD002046. <>
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) affects a large portion of the population. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is a light source that generates extremely pure light, of a single wavelength. The effect is not thermal, but rather related to photochemical reactions in the cells. LLLT was introduced as an alternative non-invasive treatment for OA about 30 years ago, but its effectiveness has to be examined more closely, especially in the treatment of OA. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of class III LLLT for osteoarthritis when irradiation is directed at the osteoarthritic joint capsule. SEARCH STRATEGY: Searches were conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Musculoskeletal registry, the Rehabilitation and Related Therapies field registry and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to May, 2005. SELECTION CRITERIA: Following an a prior protocol, only controlled clinical trials of LLLT for the treatment of patients with a clinical diagnosis of OA were eligible. Abstracts lacking data were excluded unless further data could be obtained from the authors. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently selected trials and extracted data using predetermined forms. A fixed effects model was used throughout for continuous variables, except where heterogeneity existed; in which case, a random effects model was used. Results were analyzed as weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), whereas the difference between the treatment and control groups was weighted by the inverse of the variance. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated by dividing the difference between treatment and control by the baseline variance, and were used in the analysis of pain because different scales were used to measure it. Dichotomous outcomes were analyzed with relative risk (RR). MAIN RESULTS: Eight trials were included with 233 patients randomized to laser and 172 patients to placebo laser. Treatment duration ranged from two to six weeks. Pain was assessed in seven trials. When the results were pooled from different pain scales used in these seven trials, a statistically significant difference in favor of laser treatment was found with a SMD of -0.28 (95% CI: -0.48 to -0.09). One of these studies also measured pain during movement and found a statistically significant difference in favor of laser treatment with a WMD of -1.16 (95% CI: -2.02 to -0.30). Two studies found significant results for increased knee range of motion. Two others studies found a statistically significant difference in favor of laser treatment for patient-assessed global disease activity with laser compared to placebo (RR 1.70, 95%CI: 1.1. to 2.63). One trial evaluated the effectiveness of laser treatment in temporomandibular joint OA and found a statistically significant difference (WMD 38.69, 95% CI: 29.25 to 48.13) using the change in VAS score to measure pain. One study found a statistically significant difference in favor of laser treatment at the end of treatment and at 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment for morning stiffness. Other outcome measures of joint tenderness and strength did not yield significant differences. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: Five trials included in this review showed a statistically significant difference favoring laser treatment when compared to placebo for at least one outcome measure. Three trials did not report beneficial effects. The varying results of these trials may be due to the method of laser application and/or other features of LLLT application. Clinicians and researchers should consistently report the characteristics of LLLT devices and application techniques used. New trials on LLLT should make use of standardized, validated outcomes. There is clearly a need to investigate the effects of different dosages on LLLT effectiveness for OA in future randomized, controlled clinical trials. Also, more studies should be done to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of laser as well as the appropriate parameters needed to achieve an anti-inflammatory effect.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007 Jun 22;8:51.
Short-term efficacy of physical interventions in osteoarthritic knee pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials.
Bjordal JM<>, Johnson MI<>, Lopes-Martins RA<>, Bogen B<>, Chow R<>, Ljunggren AE<>.
Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Institute of Physiotherapy, Bergen University College, Moellendalsvn, Bergen Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Treatment efficacy of physical agents in osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK) pain has been largely unknown, and this systematic review was aimed at assessing their short-term efficacies for pain relief. METHODS: Systematic review with meta-analysis of efficacy within 1-4 weeks and at follow up at 1-12 weeks after the end of treatment. RESULTS: 36 randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified with 2434 patients where 1391 patients received active treatment. 33 trials satisfied three or more out of five methodological criteria (Jadad scale). The patient sample had a mean age of 65.1 years and mean baseline pain of 62.9 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Within 4 weeks of the commencement of treatment manual acupuncture, static magnets and ultrasound therapies did not offer statistically significant short-term pain relief over placebo. Pulsed electromagnetic fields offered a small reduction in pain of 6.9 mm [95% CI: 2.2 to 11.6] (n = 487). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, including interferential currents), electro-acupuncture (EA) and low level laser therapy (LLLT) offered clinically relevant pain relieving effects of 18.8 mm [95% CI: 9.6 to 28.1] (n = 414), 21.9 mm [95% CI: 17.3 to 26.5] (n = 73) and 17.7 mm [95% CI: 8.1 to 27.3] (n = 343) on VAS respectively versus placebo control. In a subgroup analysis of trials with assumed optimal doses, short-term efficacy increased to 22.2 mm [95% CI: 18.1 to 26.3] for TENS, and 24.2 mm [95% CI: 17.3 to 31.3] for LLLT on VAS. Follow-up data up to 12 weeks were sparse, but positive effects seemed to persist for at least 4 weeks after the course of LLLT, EA and TENS treatment was stopped. CONCLUSION: TENS, EA and LLLT administered with optimal doses in an intensive 2-4 week treatment regimen, seem to offer clinically relevant short-term pain relief for OAK.
J Photochem Photobiol B. 2007 May 25;87(2):81-7. Epub 2007 Feb 24
Effect of low-level helium-neon laser therapy on histological and ultrastructural features of immobilized rabbit articular cartilage.
Bayat M<>, Ansari E<>, Gholami N<>, Bayat A<>.
Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center and Anatomy Department, Medical Faculty, Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
The present study investigates whether low-level helium-neon laser therapy can increase histological parameters of immobilized articular cartilage in rabbits or not. Twenty five rabbits were divided into three groups: the experiment group, which received low-level helium-neon laser therapy with 13J/cm(2) three times a week after immobilization of their right knees; the control group which did not receive laser therapy after immobilization of their knees; and the normal group which received neither immobilization nor laser therapy. Histological and electron microscopic examinations were performed at 4 and 7 weeks after immobilization. Depth of the chondrocyte filopodia in four-week immobilized experiment group, and depth of articular cartilage in seven-week immobilized experiment group were significantly higher than those of relevant control groups (exact Fisher test, p=0.001; student’s t-test, p=0.031, respectively). The surfaces of articular cartilages of the experiment group were relatively smooth, while those of the control group were unsmooth. It is therefore concluded that low-level helium-neon laser therapy had significantly increased the depth of the chondrocyte filopodia in four-week immobilized femoral articular cartilage and the depth of articular cartilage in seven-week immobilized knee in comparison with control immobilized articular cartilage.
EMLA Laser Health J 2007;2:46-67
European Medical Laser Association (EMLA)
Effects of LLLT on the periarthritis of the shoulder: -A clinical study on different treatments with low level laser therapy, corticosteroid injections or a wait-and see policy.
Laser Center, Villa Santina – Italy
Low level laser irradiation is a treatment method widely used in medical science. Many disorders, such as osteoarthritis and musculoskeletal conditions with pain, have been treated with LLLT. With respect to pain the action of the laser interferes in the cytokines TNF-a, interleukin-1, interleukin-6 that drive inflammation in the arthritis and are secreted from CD4 and T cells. LLLT also increases the endorphin synthesis in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, stopping the production of bradykinin and serotonin, and increases the production of nitric oxide into the endothelia cells and into the smooth muscular cells of the vessels walls having a vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory and analgesic action.
Patients, suffering from periarthritis of the shoulder of at least 6 weeks’ duration, were recruited by family doctors. We randomly allocated eligible patients to 6 weeks of treatment n. 20 (33%) with corticosteroid injection, n. 21 (35%) with LLLT and with wait-and-see policy n.19 (31%). We applied a number of 12 sessions with infrared Diode Laser Ga-As (904 nm), 60 W maximum power, peak power per pulse 27 W, pulse frequency 1280 Hz, average point region 2-8 J; dose/point = 3-4 J; total energy density 24 J/cm 2. Outcome measures included general improvement, severity of the main complaint, pain, shoulder disability, and patient satisfaction. Severity of shoulder complaints, abduction and elevation of the arm, and the pressure pain threshold were assessed. The principal analysis was done on an intention treatment basis. We assessed all outcomes at 3, 6, 12, 26, 52 weeks.
We randomly assigned 60 patients. At 6 weeks, corticosteroid injections were significantly better than all other therapy options for all outcome measures. Success rates were 90% (18) compared with 52% (11) for LLLT and 35% (7) for wait-and-see policy. Long-term differences between injections and LLLT were significantly in favour of LLLT. Success rate at 52 weeks were 14 (70%) for injections, 19 (90.5%) for LLLT, and 16 (83%) for wait-and-see policy. Low Level Laser Therapy had better results than a wait-and-see policy, but differences were not significant (p <0.001).
Patients should be properly informed about the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment options for the periarthritis of the shoulder. The decision to treat with LLLT or to adopt a wait-and-see policy might depend on available resources, since the relative gain of Low Level Laser Therapy is better, but also small at long-term.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006 Apr;14(4):377-83. Epub 2005 Dec 13
Effects of helium-neon laser on mucopolysaccharide induction in experimental osteoarthritic cartilage.
Lin YS<>, Huang MH<>, Chai CY<>.
Kun Shan University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of mucopolysaccharide induction after treatment by low power laser for experimental osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Seventy-two rats with three different degrees of papain induced OA over right knee joints were collected for helium-neon (He-Ne) laser treatment. The severity of induced arthritis was measured by 99mTc bone scan and classified into three groups (I-III) by their radioactivity ratios (right to left knee joints). The rats in each group were further divided into study subgroups (Is, IIs, and IIIs) and control subgroups (Ic, IIc, and IIIc) randomly. The arthritic knees in study subgroups received He-Ne laser treatment, and those in controls received sham laser treatment. The changes of arthritic severity after treatment and follow-up 2 months later were measured. The histopathological changes were evaluated through light microscope after disarticulation of sections (H.E. stain), and the changes of mucopolysaccharide density in cartilage matrix were measured by Optimas scanner analyzer after Alcian blue (AB) stain. The densities of mucopolysaccharide induced after treatment in arthritic cartilage were compared and correlated with their histopathological changes. RESULTS: The density of mucopolysaccharide rose at the initial stage of induced arthritis, and decreased progressively in later stages. The densities of mucopolysaccharide in treated rats increased upon complete laser treatment more than those of the controls, which is closely related with the improvement in histopathological findings, but conversely with the changes in arthritic severity. CONCLUSION: He-Ne laser treatment will enhance the biosynthesis of arthritic cartilage, and results in the improvement of arthritic histopathological changes.
|Photomed Laser Surg. 2005 Oct;23(5):453-8.|
Can Cochrane Reviews in controversial areas be biased? A sensitivity analysis based on a Systematic Cochrane Review on low-level laser therapy in osteoarthritis.
Bjordal JM<>, Bogen B<>, Lopes-Martins RA<>, Klovning A<>.
Section of Physiotherapy Science, University of Bergen, Institute of Physiotherapy, Bergen, Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test if a conclusion in a systematic review of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for osteoarthritis from the Cochrane Library was valid and robust. BACKGROUND DATA: Health policy decisions often rely on conclusions from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for approval of new therapies, although their validity for controversial non-pharmacological treatment has been questioned. METHODS: Validity was tested against a nine-item checklist for systematic reviews. Review selections were analyzed for possible discrepancies between trial and review reports, and omissions of relevant trials and data. Alternative data from discrepancies and omissions were then imputed in a sensitivity analysis, to test if review conclusions were robust. RESULTS: Only clinicians who had performed LLLT trials with negative results were invited into the review group. Review quality was sound in areas of literature search and methodological assessments, and some of the limitations were mentioned. The statistical analysis held 18 questionable selections such as omissions of trials, data, and subgroup analyses. These selections systematically favored the negative review conclusion. Without altering the review protocol, the sensitivity analysis of combined results changed to significantly positive for continuous and categorical data when data from all included trials were combined. Further sensitivity analyses with inclusion of valid non-included trials, performance of missing follow-up, and subgroup analyses revealed consistent and highly significant results in favor of active LLLT. CONCLUSIONS: In this example, the Cochrane review conclusion was neither robust nor valid. Representation of experts and different views on efficacy in the review group and extensive use of sensitivity analyses could probably improve quality control of reviews in areas of controversy.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Oct;83(10):758-65.
Effects of helium-neon laser on stress protein and arthritic histopathology in experimental osteoarthritis.
Lin YS<>, Huang MH<>, Chai CY<>, Yang RC<>.
Kun Shan University of Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of low-power laser therapy on levels of stress proteins (SPs) in experimental arthritis and their relation to the bioeffects on arthritic cartilage repair. DESIGN: A total of 42 rats with similar degrees of induced arthritis evaluated by means of bone scan were divided randomly into two groups. In the treated group, 21 rats received helium-neon laser treatment; in the control group, 21 rats received sham laser treatment. The changes in chondrocytes of SPs were measured by electrophoresis of proteins extracted from chondrocytes of arthritic cartilage at various time periods. The histopathologic changes and the presence of SP of arthritic cartilage were identified by hematoxylin and eosin stain and by immunostains of SP72 antibody individually from frozen sections of arthritic cartilage. RESULTS: SP density increased markedly in rats after laser treatment and was closely related to the repair of arthritic cartilage. Furthermore, the pathohistology of arthritic cartilage improved significantly with the decline of SP levels in the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Helium-neon (632 nm) low-power laser can enhance SP production in arthritic chondrocytes. The extragenic production of SP is well correlated with the therapeutic effect of low-power laser in preserving chondrocytes and the repair of arthritic cartilage in rats.
J Clin Laser Med Surg. 2003 Apr;21(2):99-103.
He-Ne laser on microcrystalline arthropathies
Campana V<>, Moya M<>, Gavotto A<>, Simes JC<>, Spitale L<>, Soriano F<>, Palma JA<>.
Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Cátedra de Física Biomédica, Córdoba, República Argentina. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity of He-Ne laser therapy as determined by the plasmatic levels of inflammatory markers, fibrinogen, and TNFalpha and by histopathological study in rats with arthropathy induced by calcium pyrophosphate crystals. Background Data: Microcrystalline arthropathies are a group of diseases characterized by the deposit of different crystals in joints.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two milligrams of dicalcium pyrophosphate crystals (DCPP) were injected in both joints of the lower limbs of rats during 2 days. A group was treated with laser of He-Ne (6 mW) on the injected joints during 3 consecutive days. After 96 h of the first injection, animals were sacrificed to determine TNFalpha using the ELISA method and fibrinogen was assessed using spectrophotometry. Sections from the lower limbs were used for histopathology.
RESULTS: A statistically significant increase (p < 0.001) in plasma fibrinogen levels and TNFalpha was noted between the control group and the laser-treated group. The histological transversal section of a posterior limb joint of a rat injected with DCPP showed fibroadipose tissue with diffuse chronic infiltrate. The histopathology of the group of rats injected with DCPP and subsequently treated with He-Ne laser showed no inflammatory response.
CONCLUSION: He-Ne laser treatment in the microcrystalline arthropathy induced in rats by DCPP injection might have an antiinflammatory effect, evaluated by fibrinogen plasma levels and TNF-alpha (inflammatory markers) and by the histopathology regressive process.
|Int J Tissue React. 2003;25(4):131-6.|
Low-power laser in osteoarthritis of the cervical spine.
Monteforte P<>, Baratto L<>, Molfetta L<>, Rovetta G<>.
Rheumatology Department, University of Genova, Bruzzone Rheumatologic Center, Genoa, Italy.
Patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the cervical spine were treated with very low-power modulated laser (LPL). Two applications were performed at an interval of 20 days. Changes in pain and ultrasound thickness of the soft connective tissue layer above the right and the left superior trapezium were studied. No worsening of pain was observed. Pain improved after the first application of LPL in 9 out of 14 patients, but the difference was not significant. Pain improvement remained stable between the first assessment and the second assessment, which was performed after 20 days. In comparison with the first application, at the second application the number of patients with improved pain after LPL increased to 12 out of 14 (p < 0.01). An appreciable difference in the thickness of the subcutaneous soft tissue layer overlying the two superior trapezia was demonstrated in all patients at the first examination. Comparison of the measurements before and after the application of LPL showed significant differences.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD002046.
Low level laser therapy (Classes I, II and III) for treating osteoarthritis.
Brosseau L<>, Welch V<>, Wells G<>, deBie R<>, Gam A<>, Harman K<>, Morin M<>, Shea B<>, Tugwell P<>.School of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1H 8M5. firstname.lastname@example.org
Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD002046. <>
Update of: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD002046. <>
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) affects a large proportion of the population. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is a light source that generates extremely pure light, of a single wavelength. The effect is not thermal, but rather related to photochemical reactions in the cells. LLLT was introduced as an alternative non-invasive treatment for OA about 10 years ago, but its effectiveness is still controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of OA. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Musculoskeletal registry, the registry of the Rehabilitation and Related Therapies field and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to December 31, 2002. SELECTION CRITERIA: Following an a priori protocol, only controlled clinical trials of LLLT for the treatment of patients with a clinical diagnosis of OA were eligible. Abstracts were excluded unless further data could be obtained from the authors. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently selected trials and abstracted data using predetermined forms. Heterogeneity was tested with Cochran’s Q test. A fixed effects model was used throughout for continuous variables, except where heterogeneity existed, in which case, a random effects model was used. Results were analyzed as weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), where the difference between the treated and control groups was weighted by the inverse of the variance. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated by dividing the difference between treated and control by the baseline variance. SMD were used when different scales were used to measure the same concept (e.g. pain). Dichotomous outcomes were analyzed with odds ratios. MAIN RESULTS: Five trials were included, with 112 patients randomized to laser, 85 patients to placebo laser. Treatment duration ranged from 4 to 10 weeks. Pain was assessed by four trials. The pooled estimate (random effects) of three trials showed no statistically different effect on pain measured using a scale (SMD: -0.2, 95% CI: -1.0, +0.6), but there was statistically significant heterogeneity (p>0,05). Two of the trials showed no effect and one demonstrated very beneficial effects with laser. In another trial, with no scale-based pain outcome, significantly more patients reported pain relief (yes/no) with laser with an odds ratio of 0.05, (95% CI: 0.0 to 1.56). Other outcomes of joint tenderness, joint mobility and strength were not significant. REVIEWER’S CONCLUSIONS: For OA, the results are conflicting in different studies and may depend on the method of application and other features of the LLLT application. Clinicians and researchers should consistently report the characteristics of the LLLT device and the application techniques used. New trials on LLLT should make use of standardized, validated outcomes. Despite some positive findings, this meta-analysis lacked data on how LLLT effectiveness is affected by four important factors: wavelength, treatment duration of LLLT, dosage and site of application over nerves instead of joints. There is clearly a need to investigate the effects of these factors on LLLT effectiveness for OA in randomized controlled clinical trials.
Clinical Rheumatology. 2001; 20(3): 181-184.
The clinical efficacy of low-power laser therapy on pain and function in cervical osteoarthritis.
Oezdemir F, Birtane M, Kokino S
Pain is a major symptom in cervical osteoarthritis (COA). Low-power laser (LPL) therapy has been claimed to reduce pain in musculoskeletal pathologies, but there have been concerns about this point. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of LPL therapy and related functional changes in COA. Sixty patients between 20 and 65 years of age with clinically and radiologically diagnosed COA were included in the study. They were randomised into two equal groups according to the therapies applied, either with LPL or placebo laser. Patients in each group were investigated blindly in terms of pain and pain-related physical findings, such as increased paravertebral muscle spasm, loss of lordosis and range of neck motion restrictio n before and after therapy. Functional improvements were also evaluated. Pain, paravertebral muscle spasm, lordosis angle, the range of neck motion and function were observed to improve significantly in the LPL group, but no improvement was found in the placebo group. LPL seems to be successful in relieving pain and improving function in osteoarthritic diseases.
|Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD002046.|
Low level laser therapy (classes I, II and III) for the treatment osteoarthritis.
Brosseau L, Welch V, Wells G, deBie R, Gam A, Harman K, Morin M, Shea B, Tugwell P.
School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1H-8M5. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) affects a large proportion of the population. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is a light source that generates extremely pure light, of a single wavelength. The effect is not thermal, but rather related to photochemical reactions in the cells. LLLT was introduced as an alternative non-invasive treatment for OA about 10 years ago, but its effectiveness is still controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of OA. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Musculoskeletal registry, the registry of the Rehabilitation and Related Thereapies field and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to January 30, 2000. SELECTION CRITERIA: Following an a priori protocol, only controlled clinical trials of LLLT for the treatment of patients with a clinical diagnosis of OA were eligible. Abstracts were excluded unless further data could be obtained from the authors. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently selected trials and abstracted data using predetermined forms. Heterogeneity was tested with Cochran’s Q test. A fixed effects model was used throughout for continuous variables, except where heterogeneity existed, in which case, a random effects model was used. Results were analyzed as weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), where the difference between the treated and control groups was weighted by the inverse of the variance. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated by dividing the difference between treated and control by the baseline variance. SMD were used when different scales were used to measure the same concept (e.g. pain). Dichotomous outcomes were analyzed with odds ratios. MAIN RESULTS: Five trials were included, with 112 patients randomized to laser, 85 patients to placebo laser. Treatment duration ranged from 4 to 10 weeks. Pain was assessed by four trials. The pooled estimate (random effects) of three trials showed no effect on pain measured using a scale (SMD: -0.2, 95% CI: -1.0, +0.6), but there was statistically significant heterogeneity (p>0,05). Two of the trials showed no effect and one demonstrated very beneficial effects with laser. In another trial, with no scale-based pain outcome, significantly more patients reported pain relief (yes/no) with laser with an odds ratio of 0.05, (95% CI: 0.0 to 1.56). Other outcomes of joint tenderness, joint mobility and strength were not significant. REVIEWER’S CONCLUSIONS: For OA, the results are conflicting in different studies and may depend on the method of application and other features of the LLLT application. Clinicians and researchers should consistently report the characteristics of the LLLT device and the application techniques used. New trials on LLLT should make use of standardized, validated outcomes. Despite some positive findings, this meta-analysis lacked data on how LLLT effectiveness is affected by four important factors: wavelength, treatment duration of LLLT, dosage and site of application over nerves instead of joints. There is clearly a need to investigate the effects of these factors on LLLT effectiveness for OA in randomized controlled clinical trials.
ACTION OF 904 NM DIODE LASER IN ORTHOPAEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY
Giuseppe Tam, M. D. Specialist in Legal/Insurance Medicine, Laser Center Tolmezzo – Italy
Objective: The semiconductor or laser diode (GaAs, 904 nm) is the most appropriate choice in pain-reduction. therapy.
Summary Background Data: Low power density laser acts on the Prostaglandins synthesis, increasing the change of PGG2 and PGH2 Periossidos into PGI2 (also called Prostaciclyn or Endoprostol). The last one is the main product of the Arachidonic acid into the endothelial cells and into the smooth muscular cells of the vessel walls having a vasodilating and anti-inflammatory action.
Methods: Treatment was carried out on 447 cases and 435 patients (250 women and 185 men) in the period between 20.05.1987 and 31.12.1999. The patients, whose age ranged from 25 to 70, with a mean age of 45 years, were suffering from rheumatic, degenerative and traumatic pathologies as well as cutaneous ulcers. The majority of the patients had been seen by orthopaedists and rheumatologists and had undergone x-ray examination. All patients had received drug-based treatment and/or physiotherapy, with poor results. Two thirds were experiencing acute symptomatic pain, while the others presented a chronic pathology with recurrent crises. We used a pulsed diode laser, GaAs 904 nm wavelength. Frequency of treatment: 1 application per day for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 2-day interval. In the evaluation of the results the following parameters have been considered: disappearance of spontaneous and induced pain, anatomic and functional evaluation of the joints, muscular growth, verbal rating scales, hand dinamometer, patient’s pain diary.
Results: Very good results were achieved especially with cases of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the cervical vertebrae, with sport-related injuries, with epicondylitis, and with cutaneous ulcers; also, last but not of least importance, with cases of osteoarthritis of the coxa.
Conclusions: Treatment with 904 nm diode laser has substantially reduced the symptoms as well as improved the quality of life of the patient, thus postponing the need for surgery.
Physiotherapy Research International. 1999; 4 (2): 141-57.
Clinical efficacy of low power laser therapy in osteoarthritis.
Review article: Marks R, de Palma F.
Of the various physical interventions used to relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis, a common degenerative joint disease causing considerable pain and disability, low power laser therapy has been reported to be extremely successful in Russia and Eastern Europe. Although the overall number of studies was small, this literature review and analysis highlights the relevant controlled clinical trials and related basic research in English-language publications. This review indicates that, despite their shortcomings, the six studies analysed did report post-treatment improvements in a variety of osteoarthritic problems, including pain, mobility, tenderness and function, with few adverse effects. Possible mechanisms documented for the observed results included peripheral nerve stimulation, resolution of inflammation, enhanced chondrocyte proliferation and increased matrix synthesis. Not all studies were affirmative and few detailed how reliable their measurements were. Clearly, much more work is needed in this area.
THE EFFECT OF LOW POWER LASER THERAPY ON OSTEOARTHRITIS OF THE KNEE
Basirnia A., Sadeghipoor G., Esmaeeli Djavid G. et al.
Treatment was performed on 20 patients, aging from 42 to 60 years. All patients had received conservative treatment with poor results. Laser device used for this treatment was pulsed IR diode laser; 810 nm wavelength once per day for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 2-day interval .The total number of applications was 12 sessions. Irradiation was performed on 5 periarticular tender points, each for 2 min. The treatment outcome (pain relief and functional ability) was observed and measured according to the following methods: 1) Numerical rating scales (NRS), 2) Self assessment by the patient, 3) Index of severity for osteoarthritis of the knee (ISK), 4) Analgesic requirements. We achieved significant improvement in pain relief and quality of life in 70% of patients, comparing to their previous status (p<0.05). There was no significant change in range of motion of the knee
|Radiol Med (Torino). 1998 Apr;95(4):303-9.|
Low-level laser therapy in osteoarticular diseases in geriatric patients
[Article in Italian]
Giavelli S, Fava G, Castronuovo G, Spinoglio L, Galanti A.
Dipartimento di Radiologia e Laserterapia, Istituto Gerontologico Pio Albergo Trivulzio, Milano.
INTRODUCTION: Laser light absorption through the skin causes tissue changes, targeting the nervous, the lymphatic, the circulatory and the immune systems with an antalgic, anti-inflammatory, anti-edemic effect and stimulating tissue repair. Therefore low level laser therapy is now commonly used in numerous rehabilitation centers, including the “Istituto Gerontologico Pio Albergo Trivulzio”, Milan, Italy. However, to activate the treatment program, the basic medical research results must always be considered to choose the best optical wavelength spectrum, technique and dose, for rehabilitative laser therapy. We analyzed the therapeutic effects of different wavelengths and powers in various treatment schedules. In particular, a protocol was designed to test such physical parameters as laser type, doses and individual schedule in different pathologic conditions. We report the results obtained with low level laser therapy in the rehabilitation of geriatric patients, considering the various physical and technical parameters used in our protocol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used the following laser equipment: an HeNe laser with 632.8 nm wavelength (Mectronic), a GaAs Laser with 904 nm wavelength (Mectronic) and a CO2 Laser with 10,600 nm wavelength (Etoile). To evaluate the patient clinical status, we use a different form for each involved joint; the laser beam is targeted on the region of interest and irradiation is carried out with the sweeping method or the points technique. Irradiation technique, doses and physical parameters (laser type, wavelength, session dose and number) are indicated on the form. The complete treatment cycle consists of 5 sessions per week–20 sessions in all. At the end of the treatment cycle, the results were scored on a 5-grade semiquantitative scale–excellent, good, fair, poor and no results. We examined 3 groups of patients affected with gonarthrosis (149 patients), lumbar arthrosis (117 patients), and algodystrophy (140 patients) respectively. RESULTS: In gonarthrosis patients, the statistical analysis of the results showed no significant differences between CO2 laser and GaAs laser treatments (p = .975), but significant differences between CO2 laser and HeNe laser treatments (p = .02) and between GaAs laser and HeNe laser treatments (p = .003). In lumbar arthrosis patients treated with GaAs or HeNe laser, significant differences were found between the two laser treatments and the combined sweeping-points techniques appeared to have a positive trend relative to the sweeping method alone, especially in sciatic suffering. In the algodystrophy syndrome, in hemiplegic patients, significant differences were found between CO2 and HeNe laser treatments (p = .026), between high and low CO2 laser doses (p = .024), and between low CO2 laser dose and high HeNe laser dose (p = .006). CONCLUSIONS: Low level laser therapy can be used to treat osteoarticular pain in geriatric patients. To optimize the results, the diagnostic picture must be correct and a treatment program defining the physical parameters used (wavelength, dose and irradiation technique) must also be designed.
J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992; 40: 23-26.
Improvement of pain and disability in elderly patients with degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee treated with narrow-band light therapy
Stelian J, Gil I, Habot B et al.
In an Israeli study the effect of laser therapy in degenerative osteoarthritis (DOA) of the knee was investigated in a double blind study among 50 patients. One group received infrared (GaAlAs) and one red (HeNe) laser. Only the first group could be blinded, while the latter was open. Patients were treated twice daily, 15 minutes each time, for 10 days. The patients treated themselves after instruction. Total dose for each session was 10.3 J for red and 11.1 for infrared. Continuous mode was used for 7.5 minutes, pulsed for 7.5 minutes, rationale not stated. There was a significant pain reduction in the laser groups as compared to the placebo groups. There was no significant difference between the red and the infrared group. The Disability Index Questionnaire also revealed an improvement in the laser groups. All patients in the placebo group required analgesics within two months after laser therapy while the patients in the laser group were pain free ranging from 2 months to 1 year.