Multiple Sclerosis

Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 May;97(19):e0627. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000010627.

Effect of photobiomodulation treatment in the sublingual, radial artery region, and along the spinal column in individuals with multiple sclerosis: Protocol for a randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial.

da Silva T1, da Silva FC1, Gomes AO1, Viana AO1, Gonçalves MLL1, Rodrigues MFSD1, Horliana ACRT1, da Silva DFT1, Chavantes MC1, Fragoso YD2, Branco LP2, Motta LJ1, Fernandes KPS1, Mesquita-Ferrari RA1, Bussadori SK1.

Author information

1
Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE).
2
University Metropolitana de Santos (UNIMES) University, Santos, Brazil.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease, for which the forms of treatment are medication and rehabilitation. However, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that photobiomodulation can be an effective treatment modality for inflammatory diseases, including MS. Photobiomodulation has a broad range of benefits, such as the avoidance of cell and tissue death, the stimulation of healing and injury repair, reductions in pain, edema and inflammation, cell proliferation, and even apoptosis. The outcomes of photobiomodulation include the regeneration of cells, the stimulation of the growth of Schwann cells, a reduction in spasticity, functional improvements, a reduction in nitric oxide levels, and the upregulation of the cytokine IL10, demonstrating that this therapeutic modality can offer neuroprotection.

METHODS:

A randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial is proposed. The patients will be divided into 6 groups. Groups 1 and 2 will receive sham and active photobiomodulation in the sublingual region, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 will receive sham and active photobiomodulation along the spinal cord, respectively. Group 5 will receive placebo treatment with photobiomodulation on the skin in the region of the radial artery with a specific bracelet. Group 6 will be treated with photobiomodulation on the skin in the region of the radial artery.

DISCUSSION:

Treatment for MS is directed at the immune response and slowing the progression of the disease. This is one of the first clinical trials involving photobiomodulation in the sublingual region and along the spinal cord, which could help establish a promising new form of nonpharmacological treatment for autoimmune diseases. This is one of the first clinical trials with sublingual photobiomodulation and along the spinal cord that could help establish a new form of promising treatment of the disease associated with pharmacological treatment.

Autoimmunity. 2016;49(2):132-42. doi: 10.3109/08916934.2015.1124425. Epub 2015 Dec 24.

Lowlevel laser therapy ameliorates disease progression in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

Gonçalves ED1,2, Souza PS2, Lieberknecht V1, Fidelis GS2, Barbosa RI3, Silveira PC2, de Pinho RA2, Dutra RC1,2,3.

Author information

1
a Laboratory of Autoimmunity and Immunopharmacology , Campus Araranguá, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina , Araranguá , SC , Brazil .
2
b Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Physiology , Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense , Criciúma , SC , Brazil , and.
3
c Laboratory of Assessment and Rehabilitation of Locomotor System , Campus Araranguá, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina , Araranguá , SC , Brazil.

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent episodes of T cell-mediated immune attack on central nervous system (CNS) myelin, leading to axon damage and progressive disability. The existing therapies for MS are only partially effective and are associated with undesirable side effects. Lowlevel laser therapy (LLLT) has been clinically used to treat inflammation, and to induce tissue healing and repair processes. However, there are no reports about the effects and mechanisms of LLLT in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of MS. Here, we report the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of LLLT (AlGaInP, 660?nm and GaAs, 904?nm) irradiated on the spinal cord during EAE development. EAE was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund’s adjuvant. Our results showed that LLLT consistently reduced the clinical score of EAE and delayed the disease onset, and also prevented weight loss induced by immunization. Furthermore, these beneficial effects of LLLT seem to be associated with the down-regulation of NO levels in the CNS, although the treatment with LLLT failed to inhibit lipid peroxidation and restore antioxidant defense during EAE. Finally, histological analysis showed that LLLT blocked neuroinflammation through a reduction of inflammatory cells in the CNS, especially lymphocytes, as well as preventing demyelination in the spinal cord after EAE induction. Together, our results suggest the use of LLLT as a therapeutic application during autoimmune neuroinflammatory responses, such as MS.

KEYWORDS:

Demyelination; T cell; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; neuroinflammation; spinal cord

NeuroRehabilitation. 2016;38(2):183-90. doi: 10.3233/NRE-161

Application of laser radiation and magnetostimulation in therapy of patients with multiple sclerosis.

Kubsik A1, Klimkiewicz R1, Janczewska K1, Klimkiewicz P2, Jankowska A1, Woldaska-Okoska M1.

Author information

  • 1Department of Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.
  • 2Cabinet of physiotherapy “MedicalFizjo”, Poland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common neurological disorders. It is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS, whose etiology is not fully understood. Application of new rehabilitation methods are essential to improve functional status.

OBJECTIVE:

The material studied consisted of 120 patients of both sexes (82 women and 38 men) aged 21-81 years. The study involved patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of laser radiation and other therapies on the functional status of patients with multiple sclerosis.

METHODS:

Patients were randomly divided into four treatment groups. The evaluation was performed three times – before the start of rehabilitation, immediately after rehabilitation (21 days of treatment) and subsequent control – 30 days after the patients leave the clinic. The following tests were performed for all patients to assess functional status: Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of Kurtzke and Barthel Index.

RESULTS:

Results of all testing procedures show that the treatment methods are improving the functional status of patients with multiple sclerosis, with the significant advantage of the synergistic action of laser and magneto stimulation. The combination of laser and magneto stimulation significantly confirmed beneficial effect on quality of life. The results of these studies present new scientific value and are improved compared to program of rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis by laser radiation which was previously used.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study showed that synergic action of laser radiation and magneto stimulation has a beneficial effect on improving functional status, and thus improves the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis. The effects of all methods of rehabilitation are persisted after cessation of treatment applications, with a particular advantage of the synergistic action of laser radiation and magneto stimulation, which indicates the possibility to elicitation in these methods the phenomenon of the biological hysteresis.

Wiad Lek. 2016;69(1 Pt 2):69-76.

The overall assessment of the quality of the physical health of patients with multiple sclerosis after the application of physical therapy. Part 1].

[Article in Polish]
Kubsik A1, Klimkiewicz R1, Klimkiewicz P2, Janczewska K1, Jankowska A1, Kociuga N1, Wolda?ska-Oko?ska M1.

Author information

  • 1Katedra Nefrologii i Nadcinienia Tniczego, Klinika Rehabilitacji i Medycyny Fizykalnej Uniwersytet Medyczny, ód
  • 2Prywatny Gabinet Fizjoterapii – “MedicalFizjo”, ód?

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Multiple sclerosis is one of the demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. The biggest problem of patients affected by this disease are physical limitations which force many times to changes in employment and dependent on their families.The progressive disability significantly reduces the quality of life of patients with MS.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

The study involved 120 patients with multiple sclerosis at the age of 21 – 81 years. Patients were divided into four groups, and the test was performed three times. In the first group was used laser therapy, group II laser and magnetostimulation, in the third group kinesiotherapy in the fourth group magnetostimulation. In all patients MSQOL (Quality of Life Questionnaire-54) was carried out, this survey analyzed overall assessment of physical health.

RESULTS:

In all test groups was observed tends to decrease as a result of a point in Quality of Life Questionnaire MSQOL-54 and continuation in this relationship even after cessation of use of these therapies. The correlation between the two groups showed a statistically significant result at the level of p <0.001 in the group I and II in relation to group III and IV.

CONCLUSIONS:

Synergic action of laser radiation and magnetic stimulation, causing a plurality of changes at the cellular and tissue level, has a beneficial effect on improving functional status, and thereby improves the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis. Thanks to physical therapy, it is possible to achieve long-term effects of therapy, which proves the biological hysteresis phenomenon. Such results can not be achieved with using monotherapy only – by kinesiotherapy.

Autoimmunity. 2015 Dec 24:1-11. [Epub ahead of print]

Low-level laser therapy ameliorates disease progression in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

Gonçalves ED1,2, Souza PS2, Lieberknecht V1, Fidelis GS2, Barbosa RI3, Silveira PC2, de Pinho RA2, Dutra RC1,2,3.
Author information
1a Laboratory of Autoimmunity and Immunopharmacology , Campus Araranguá, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina , Araranguá , SC , Brazil .
2b Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Physiology , Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense , Criciúma , SC , Brazil , and.
3c Laboratory of Assessment and Rehabilitation of Locomotor System , Campus Araranguá, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina , Araranguá , SC , Brazil.
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent episodes of T cell-mediated immune attack on central nervous system (CNS) myelin, leading to axon damage and progressive disability. The existing therapies for MS are only partially effective and are associated with undesirable side effects. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been clinically used to treat inflammation, and to induce tissue healing and repair processes. However, there are no reports about the effects and mechanisms of LLLT in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of MS. Here, we report the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of LLLT (AlGaInP, 660nm and GaAs, 904nm) irradiated on the spinal cord during EAE development. EAE was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund’s adjuvant. Our results showed that LLLT consistently reduced the clinical score of EAE and delayed the disease onset, and also prevented weight loss induced by immunization. Furthermore, these beneficial effects of LLLT seem to be associated with the down-regulation of NO levels in the CNS, although the treatment with LLLT failed to inhibit lipid peroxidation and restore antioxidant defense during EAE. Finally, histological analysis showed that LLLT blocked neuroinflammation through a reduction of inflammatory cells in the CNS, especially lymphocytes, as well as preventing demyelination in the spinal cord after EAE induction. Together, our results suggest the use of LLLT as a therapeutic application during autoimmune neuroinflammatory responses, such as MS.
J Phys Ther Sci. 2013 Aug;25(8):911-4. doi: 10.1589/jpts.25.911. Epub 2013 Sep 20.

Comparison between Trans-Cranial Electromagnetic Stimulation and LowLevel Laser on Modulation of Trigeminal Neuralgia.

Seada YI1, Nofel R, Sayed HM.

Author information

1
Department of Physical Therapy for Neuromuscular Disorders and its Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University.

Abstract

[Purpose] To determine which of the transcranial electromagnetic stimulation or low level laser therapy is more effective in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia of multiple sclerosis patients. [Methods] Thirty multiple sclerosis patients of both sexes participated in this study. The age of the subjects ranged from 40 to 60?years and their mean age was (56.4-6.6). Participants were randomly selected from Dental and Neurology Outpatient Clinics at King Khalid Hospital, Najran University, Saudi Arabia. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of 15. The Laser group received a low level laser therapy, 830?nm wavelength, 10?Hz and 15?min duration, while the Electromagnetic group received repetitive transcranial electromagnetic stimulation at a frequency of 10?Hz, intensity of 50 mA and duration of 20 minutes. Patients were assessed pre and post treatment for degree of pain using a numerical rating scale, maximal oral mouth opening using a digital calibrated caliper, masseter muscle tension using a tensiometer and a compound action potentials of masseter and temporalis muscles. [Results] There were significant improvements after treatment in both groups, with a significant difference between the Electromagnetic and Laser groups, in favor of the Electromagnetic group. [Conclusion] Repetitive transcranial electromagnetic stimulation at 10?Hz, 50 mA, and 20 minutes duration is more effective than low level laser therapy at reducing trigeminal pain, increasing maximum oral mouth opening, masseter and temporalis muscle tension in multiple sclerosis patients.

KEYWORDS:

Low level laser; Trans-cranial electromagnetic stimulation; Trigeminal neuralgia

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PLoS One. 2013; 8(6): e67358.
Published online 2013 Jun 28. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0067358
PMCID: PMC3696113

Photobiomodulation Induced by 670 nm Light Ameliorates MOG35-55 Induced EAE in Female C57BL/6 Mice: A Role for Remediation of Nitrosative Stress

Kamaldeen A. Muili,¤a Sandeep Gopalakrishnan,¤b Janis T. Eells, and Jeri-Anne Lyons*
Joseph Najbauer, Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America
University of Pécs Medical School, Hungary
* E-mail: ude.mwu@snoylj
Competing Interests: The authors have read the journal’s policy and have the following conflicts: The study was partly funded by Quantum Biomedical. Dr. Eells has served as a consultant for Quantum Biomedical. Dr. Lyons and Dr. Eells are listed as researchers on the Quantum Biomedical website. There are no patents, products in development, or marketed products to declare. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors. No other authors have any conflicts to declare.

Conceived and designed the experiments: JAL JTE. Performed the experiments: KAM SG. Analyzed the data: JAL KAM JTE. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JAL JTE. Wrote the paper: KAM JAL JTE SG.

¤aCurrent address: Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Rangos Research Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
¤bCurrent address: Cardiovascular Center, Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America
Received 2012 Oct 18; Accepted 2013 May 17.

 Abstract

Background

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly studied animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive therapies currently approved for the treatment of MS slow disease progression, but do not prevent it. A growing body of evidence suggests additional mechanisms contribute to disease progression. We previously demonstrated the amelioration of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice by 670 nm light-induced photobiomodulation, mediated in part by immune modulation. Numerous other studies demonstrate that near-infrared/far red light is therapeutically active through modulation of nitrosoxidative stress. As nitric oxide has been reported to play diverse roles in EAE/MS, and recent studies suggest that axonal loss and progression of disability in MS is mediated by nitrosoxidative stress, we investigated the effect of 670 nm light treatment on nitrosative stress in MOG-induced EAE.

Methodology

Cell culture experiments demonstrated that 670 nm light-mediated photobiomodulation attenuated antigen-specific nitric oxide production by heterogenous lymphocyte populations isolated from MOG immunized mice. Experiments in the EAE model demonstrated down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression in the spinal cords of mice with EAE over the course of disease, compared to sham treated animals. Animals receiving 670 nm light treatment also exhibited up-regulation of the Bcl-2 anti-apoptosis gene, an increased Bcl-2:Bax ratio, and reduced apoptosis within the spinal cord of animals over the course of disease. 670 nm light therapy failed to ameliorate MOG-induced EAE in mice deficient in iNOS, confirming a role for remediation of nitrosative stress in the amelioration of MOG-induced EAE by 670 nm mediated photobiomodulation.

Conclusions

These data indicate that 670 nm light therapy protects against nitrosative stress and apoptosis within the central nervous system, contributing to the clinical effect of 670 nm light therapy previously noted in the EAE model.

Introduction

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the primary animal model of the human disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), sharing clinical characteristics and pathogenic mechanisms with MS [1]. Both are considered autoimmune, neurodegenerative diseases characterized by chronic demyelination of neurons and eventual loss of axons. Myelin specific CD4+ T helper cells are important in disease initiation and progression through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, including interferon-gamma (IFNy), interleukin (IL)-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) [1]. Conversely, anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-4 have been reported to be important to recovery from EAE and disease amelioration [1].

More recently, oxidative and nitrosative stress have been implicated in EAE/MS pathogenesis, both early and late in the disease process. Qi et al. showed that oxidative injury to mitochondria evident by increased protein nitrosylation preceded infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) by peripheral immune cells, suggesting that oxidative and nitrosative stress are early events in EAE [2], [3]. In addition, Dutta et al. reported that markers of oxidative stress related to mitochondrial energy depletion are associated with chronic MS, and may explain the irreversible pathology associated with chronic phase of MS [4], [5]. Furthermore, the currently approved therapeutic agents for the treatment of MS target the immune response and slow disease progression but do not prevent disease, providing further evidence that additional mechanisms are at play in disease progression. These data suggest that successful treatment of MS may depend on the development of therapeutic modalities that remediate oxidative stress and preserve mitochondrial function.

Photobiomodulation (PBM) induced by 670 nm light is an alternative therapy shown effective in soft tissue injuries, wound healing [6][8] and neurodegenerative diseases [9][16]. Mechanistically, PBM is thought to function through intracellular signaling pathways involving NO-mediated mechanisms. These mechanisms are triggered when near infrared (NIR) photons interact with the mitochondrial photoacceptor molecule, cytochrome c oxidase, culminating in improved cellular mitochondrial energy metabolism, increased production of cytoprotective factors and improved cell survival [17]. Deciphering the role of nitro-oxidative stress and neuroprotective strategies in 670 nm NIR-LED photobiomodulation of MOG35–55 induced EAE mice are the focus of current research.

Our laboratory previously showed that photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light reduced clinical severity of EAE with concomitant down-regulation of IFy and TNFa and up-regulation of IL-4 and IL-10 [18]. In other models, PBM has been shown to down-regulate nitrosoxidative stress and up-regulate anti-oxidant mechanisms [17], [19][21]. As noted above, nitrosoxidative stress was recently suggested to be important in axonal loss associated with disease progression in MS/EAE. Thus, we hypothesized that modulation of nitrosoxidative stress by 670 nm light may offer neuroprotection in the EAE model. Treatment with 670 nm light down-regulated NO production by antigen-primed lymph node cells in vitro and iNOS gene expression in EAE mice. These changes were associated with decreased CNS apoptosis in treated mice. These findings suggest that 670 nm NIR-LED photobiomodulation ameliorates EAE by coordinated immune modulation and modulation of nitrosoxidative stress and further support previous data indicating that PBM may be an effective neuroprotective therapy for the treatment of MS.

Results

Photobiomodulation by 670 nm Light Attenuates Antigen-specific Nitric Oxide Production in vitro

Our previous data demonstrated amelioration of chronic EAE associated with immune modulation by photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light [18]. Previous data in other models suggests that photobiomodulation functions in part through down-regulation of nitrosoxidative stress [17], [19][21]. To determine if this same effect could be observed in an antigen-specific immune response, we investigated the effect of 670 nm light on antigen-specific NO production in vitro. Draining peripheral lymph nodes were isolated from MOG35–55-immunized C57BL/6 mice 10 days post immunization (dpi). Single cell suspensions were prepared and cultured with cognate antigen or the mitogenic lectin, concanavalin A (ConA). Cells were treated with 670 nm light or sham control once daily for 96 hours. Nitrite production was measured in cell culture supernatants by the Griess reaction over the course of culture. Data demonstrated that cells treated with 670 nm light produced significantly less nitrite than did sham treated cells (p<0.01; Figure 1A) over the entire time-course of the experiment. On the other hand, significant down-regulation of nitrite was only noted at 72 h in ConA treated cells, suggesting that this effect may be antigen specific (Figure 1B).

Figure 1

670 nm light modulates nitrosative stress in MOG35–55 induced EAE.

670 nm Light Down-regulates Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) mRNA over the Course of EAE

A dual role for nitric oxide in EAE pathogenesis is evident in the literature [22][28]. Several studies have demonstrated a contributing role for NO in disease severity and the progression to chronic disease in EAE and MS [4], [5], [29][31]. Inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) is the main source of NO in EAE pathology [22], [32]. To determine the effect of 670 nm light treatment on the expression of iNOS over the course of EAE, QPCR analysis was performed on RNA isolated from the spinal cord of mice immunized with MOG35–55 and receiving 670 nm light treatment by double treatment protocol (Figure 2). Tissues were collected relative to disease course, as defined in Materials and Methods. A significant effect on iNOS gene expression was not observed during the acute episode of disease when mice were treated with the double treatment protocol, but a significant down-regulation was observed later in the disease process, during the chronic phase of disease (Figure 2).

Figure 2

670 nm light reduced spinal cord iNOS mRNA message in MOG35–55 induced EAE.

Importance of iNOS in the Amelioration of Clinical EAE by 670 nm Light

Given the current understanding of the role of NO in EAE progression, the down-regulation of iNOS gene expression by 670 nm light observed above would be expected to have a beneficial effect on EAE disease severity. To investigate whether iNOS played a role in the amelioration of EAE severity by 670 nm light, disease was induced by MOG35–55 immunization of iNOS knockout (iNOS-/-) or wild type (WT) mice, and animals were treated according to the double treatment protocol outlined in Materials & Methods. As previously shown, photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light resulted in the amelioration of clinical EAE in WT B6 mice (Figure 3). However, treatment with 670 nm light failed to ameliorate EAE in iNOS?/? mice, suggesting that NO produced by iNOS is important to the mechanism of protection by 670 nm light (Figure 3A).

Figure 3

Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is important to EAE clinical disease amelioration by 670 nm light treatment.

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), responsible for the production of NO, exists in 3 isoforms. Given the lack of a clinical effect noted in 670 nm-treated iNOS-/ mice noted above, cell culture supernatants from lymph node cells isolated from MOG35–55-immunized iNOS-/ mice were subjected to the Griess reaction to measure the production of nitrite (Figure 3B, C). Background detection of NO production was observed in supernatants from 670 nm-treated and sham-treated cells cultured with MOG35–55 (Figure 3B) or the mitogenic lectin, ConA (Figure 3C), confirming that iNOS is responsible for the majority of NO production in lymphoid cells [33], [34]. Addition of the nitric oxide donor, DETA NONOate, to cultures resulted in a significant up-regulation of NO production in sham-treated cultures, regardless of whether the stimulation was antigen-specific (Figure 3B) or nonspecific (Figure 3C). Likewise, NO generation was restored in 670 nm, ConA-treated cultures (Figure 3C). However, only a modest up-regulation of NO production was observed in MOG35–55-derived supernatants, again suggesting that 670 nm-mediated photobiomodulation may occur selectively with antigen-specific cell activation (Figure 3B).

670 nm NIR-LED Light Therapy Results in Reduced Apoptosis in the Central Nervous System

Recent data suggest that the accumulation of oxidative/nitrosative stress in the face of ongoing demyelination contributes to axonal loss and accumulating disability in MS/EAE [2], [5]. Data presented above demonstrate a role for the down-regulation of iNOS/NO in the protective mechanism of 670 nm light in the EAE model. Thus, we characterized the effect of 670 nm mediated photobiomodulation on apoptosis within the spinal cord over the course of MOG35–55 induced EAE.

We first investigated the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and the pro-apoptotic Bax genes important in regulation of programmed cell death. EAE was induced in WT B6 mice by immunization with MOG35–55, and mice were subjected to 670 nm light or sham treatment according to the Double Treatment protocol. Quantitative PCR analysis of spinal cord tissue over the course of EAE demonstrated significant up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 at peak EAE in the spinal cord of 670 nm light treated animals (Figure 4A). However, there was not a significant difference in Bax gene expression between 670 nm light treated and sham treated EAE mice at any disease stage tested (Figure 4B). 670 nm light significantly (p<0.001) increased Bcl-2 relative to Bax two days after initiation of light treatment (Figure 4C). Together, these data support the hypothesis that 670 nm light therapy may prevent apoptosis in the EAE model.

Figure 4

670 nm light regulate apoptosis in EAE mice.

To directly demonstrate differences in apoptosis over the course of EAE, TUNEL staining was performed on spinal cord sections prepared over the course of EAE from 670 nm light treated and sham treated animals. At all disease stages tested, the number of apoptotic cells observed within the spinal cord of 670 nm light treated mice were significantly lower than that observed in sham treated animals (Figures 4D & 4E). These results, in conjunction with increased Bcl-2 expression relative to Bax, strongly support the hypothesis that down-regulation of iNOS/NO by 670 nm light protects against apoptosis within the CNS over the course of active EAE and would contribute to the amelioration of clinical disease by 670 nm light-mediated photobiomodulation.

Discussion

EAE is the most studied animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease affecting 400,000 Americans, and about 5 million people worldwide. Much of the current understanding of MS pathogenesis and therapeutic advancement in MS management are derived from studies utilizing the EAE model [35]. The current paradigm describes MS as an autoimmune disease mediated by CD4+ myelin-reactive T cells that gain access to the CNS and initiate a proinflammatory response leading to the destruction of the myelin sheath by multiple mechanisms [1]. With time, axonal loss accumulates and disease progresses. Most agents for the treatment of MS are effective early in the disease process and act by targeting the autoimmune response [1], resulting in a slower disease progression. However, these agents are ineffective against primary progressive or secondary progressive disease, suggesting non-immune mechanisms are driving disease progression. Previous studies describe nitrosoxidative stress in the CNS over the course of EAE and MS as contributing to disease progression [2], [3], [5]. Published studies demonstrated down-regulation of nitrosoxidative stress by near infrared/far-red light induced photobiomodulation [19], [20], [36], [37]. We previously reported amelioration of clinical EAE associated with immunomodulation induced by 670 nm light in MOG35–55 induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice [18]. In this report, we demonstrate that the amelioration of clinical EAE by 670 nm light therapy is also associated with the down-regulation of nitrosoxidative stress and reduced CNS apoptosis in the MOG35–55-induced model of EAE.

The present studies utilized the Double Treatment Protocol, in which animals are treated for two separate 7 day periods, separated by a 7 day rest during which no light is administered to the animals [18]. This protocol was developed after early experiments demonstrated a temporary treatment effect by 670 nm light when mice were treated with a single 7 day or 10 day treatment protocol [18]. Also noted in previous studies was a worsening of clinical signs in treated animals if treatment periods were extended past 10 days (unpublished data). The biphasic dose-response curve is well-established [38]. However, the worsening of clinical signs with increasing dose observed in the EAE model has not been seen in other model systems and could be related to the autoimmune pathology of MS and dual roles of nitric oxide on the immune response and disease pathogenesis. Thus, the Double Treatment Protocol results in a sustained clinical effect by 670 nm phototherapy while minimizing potential adverse side effects associated with over-treatment.

In this study, in vitro treatment of heterogeneous lymph node populations isolated from MOG35–55 immunized mice with 670 nm light demonstrated decreased NO generation compared to sham treated cultures in culture supernatants by the Griess reaction. Similar to the effect of in vitro treatment of lymph node cells on the generation of proinflammatory cytokines [18], this effect appeared to be antigen specific, given that similar down-regulation of nitric oxide following 670 nm light treatment was not seen with nonspecific activation with a mitogenic lectin. Thus, it is possible that photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light could be effective in treatment of antigen-specific autoimmunity, like multiple sclerosis.

The effect of 670 nm light therapy on iNOS gene expression over the course of EAE differed with disease course when administered by the double treatment protocol. In these experiments, no effect on gene expression was noted during the acute episode, while a significant down-regulation was observed during relapse. As demonstrated by Qi et al, evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction and NO generation was evident within the CNS prior to immune infiltration and disease onset [2]. Treatment initiated at disease onset would not inhibit early generation of NO, but would hinder the generation of NO with subsequent relapse. Alternatively, but not mutually exclusive, a significant down-regulation iNOS/NO with relapse would support the role for nitrosoxidative stress in disease progression during the chronic phase, as demonstrated by the work of Dutta et al [4], [5]. Further studies characterizing the mechanism of iNOS/NO down-regulation and the role of NO in disease pathogenesis will be necessary to elucidate these mechanisms.

Previous reports in other model systems demonstrated induction of NO production by NIR light [39], [40], whereas the current work demonstrated down-regulation of NO in the EAE model when utilizing the double-treatment protocol. A comparison of the literature reveals a number of parameters which could contribute to the differential effects of phototherapy on NO production, including treatment parameters, experimental conditions, and the cell populations studied. Treatment parameters, including wavelength and fluence, affect the outcomes of phototherapy [39][42]. Those systems that demonstrated up-regulation of NO utilized 780 nm light [39] or broad-band (400–800 nm) visible light [40], whereas our studies, as well as those of Song et al, showing down-regulation of NO utilized 670 nm (current study) or 632.8 nm [41]. Sharma et al. demonstrated down-regulation of inflammatory mediators, including NO, at low fluence but up-regulation of these same mediators at high fluence [42]. Experimental parameters, such as the timing of the assays could also affect the observed results. Other systems characterize the generation of NO immediately following, or shortly after, exposure to NIR light. Our studies focus on NO generation in the days and weeks following NIR light exposure. In addition, the down-regulation of NO observed in the CNS microenvironment could be affected by the complex interaction between the immune response and the CNS microenvironment. This hypothesis is supported by preliminary data from our lab showing a brief up-regulation of iNOS gene expression by lymph node cells within 2 hours of 670 nm light exposure. Furthermore, we noted an initial up-regulation of iNOS gene expression during the preclinical stage of disease when 670 nm light treatment was initiated the day after immunization and continued through the onset of disease. With this same treatment protocol, iNOS gene expression was down-regulated during the acute phase of disease. The observation of divergent effects of NIR light on NO production indicates that careful optimization of treatment parameters will be necessary for phototherapy to be clinically useful. In addition, care in moving forward with the application of phototherapy for the treatment of MS is also prudent: given the relapsing-remitting nature of early disease, it is possible that exacerbation of clinical signs and symptoms may be noted if patients are treated in the period prior to onset of a relapse.

The observed effects of 670 nm light on NO production and iNOS gene expression would be expected to have a beneficial effect on EAE/MS disease progression. Thus, mice lacking iNOS expression (iNOS?/?) were immunized with MOG35–55 for initiation of EAE and received 670 nm light therapy according to the double treatment protocol. Although disease severity was ameliorated in WT mice, we failed to observe a similar effect in the iNOS?/? mice, demonstrating that the clinical effect of 670 nm light therapy in the EAE model is dependent on iNOS gene expression. This may seem counter-intuitive given that 670 nm light down-regulates iNOS expression and NO generation. However, this could suggest a role for, or compensation by, other forms of NOS, including neuronal (n)NOS or endothelial (e)NOS in EAE pathogenesis or the clinical effect of 670 nm light. Alternatively, this observation could be due to the potential multiple roles of NO in the regulation of EAE/MS pathogenesis, as discussed above.

Down-regulation of oxidative stress protects against MS/EAE disease progression through protection from apoptosis [3], [43] [44], [45]. Indeed, decreased apoptosis within the CNS was noted in animals receiving 670 nm light treatment. While the phenotype of the cells undergoing apoptosis in untreated animals was not determined, cell localization and physical characteristics suggest that early in the disease process (acute disease), these were primarily infiltrating immune cells. With disease progression, apoptotic cells appeared to be resident glial cells.

Apoptosis in the CNS has been linked with a number of factors including cytokines and reactive radicals [46]. Our previous data [18] as well as data presented here suggest that photobiomodulation by 670 nm light therapy could be acting via both mechanisms–down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and NO–to protect against disease progression. Protection could be mediated via independent mechanisms and/or through coordinated actions. Free radicals are known to be involved in cytokine signaling [47], [48]. Conversely, cytokine expression, particularly INFy, affects NO generation [49], [50]. Previous work demonstrated an effect of 810 nm light, also within the NIR/FR region of the spectrum and postulated to act through interaction with cytochrome c oxidase, on the activation of the transcription factor, NFB [51]. NFB is known to play a role in the regulation of cytokine signaling and iNOS expression [49], [52]. Interestingly, Espejo et al reported the modulation of oxidative stress by IFNy, particularly by CNS glial cells [53], further contributing to the potential mechanism of protection afforded by 670 nm light on the clinical course of EAE. These intriguing ideas are under further investigation.

In the current study, we demonstrate down-regulation of nitrosative stress and protection against apoptosis within the CNS by 670 nm light mediated photobiomodulation in the EAE model of MS. These findings, together with our previously published report [18] demonstrate that clinical effects of 670 nm light therapy are in the EAE model, and perhaps other applications of light therapy, are due to multiple and complex mechanisms. Our studies document the potential therapeutic value of NIR/FR light therapy for the treatment of MS and suggest that this noninvasive therapy may provide the neuroprotection necessary to have a lasting effect on disease pathogenesis in the MS patient.

Materials and Methods

Ethics Statement

Animal studies were approved by the UWM Animal Care and Use Committee prior to initiation. Animals were housed in and AAALAC accredited facility in accordance with University and NIH guidelines.

Animals

Specific pathogen-free female C57BL/6 (B6) wild type (WT) and iNOS-/ mice on the B6 background were bred in-house from breeding pairs purchased from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Mice were maintained in micro-isolator cages in an AAALAC-accredited facility in accordance with University and NIH guidelines. All animals were supplied with food and water ad libitum and maintained on a 12 hour light/dark schedule in a temperature and humidity-controlled environment.

Antigens and EAE Induction

The mouse MOG35–55 peptide (MEVGWYRSPFSRVVHLYRNGK) was synthesized (GenScript, Piscataway, NJ) and purity confirmed by HPLC. EAE was induced in mature mice (6–8 weeks old) by immunization with 100 ug MOG35–55 peptide emulsified (1?1) in IFA with 300 ug Mycobacterium tuberculosis, strain H37RA (Difco Labs, Lawrence, KS). Each mouse received 0.05 ml emulsion (s.c.) at four sites and pertussis toxin (300 ng i.p.; List Laboratories, Campbell, CA) at 0 h and 72 h post immunization. Animals were followed for the development of EAE and graded clinically on a scale of 0–5 by a blinded observer (0: healthy, no signs of EAE; 1: loss of tail tone; 2: hind limb weakness/wobbly gate; 3: paresis or paralysis of one hind limb; 4: paralysis of both hind limbs; 5: dead or moribund).

LED Treatment

Gallium/Aluminum/Arsenide (GaAlA) LED arrays (75 cm2) of 670 nm (LED bandwidth 25–30 nm at Full Width Max Power [FWHM]) were obtained from Quantum Devices (Barneveld, WI). Unanesthetized mice were placed individually into a polypropylene restraint device (12.7×9×7.6 cm), and the LED array was positioned directly over the animal at a distance of 2 cm, covering the entire chamber and exposing the entire dorsal surface. Treatment consisted of once daily irradiation at 670 nm for 3 min, at a power intensity of 28 mW/cm2 (total power output: 2100 mW) and an energy density of 5 J/cm2 (375 J daily total). As indicated, “restraint only” stress was employed, in which mice were placed in the restraint device for 3 min but not exposed to light. Mice were treated with the Double Treatment Protocol, consisting of once daily treatment for 7 consecutive days starting at EAE onset (clinical score =1.0), resulting in a total of 3024 J at the level of the spinal cord administered to the animal over the course of treatment. This was followed by 7 day rest period, and a subsequent 7 d treatment period (6048 J total energy administered). Clinical disease was followed for an additional 7 d following cessation of the second treatment period [18].

RNA Isolation and Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction

Mice were anesthetized with a ketamine cocktail and perfused with 60 ml cold PBS via cardiac puncture. Total RNA was isolated from the spinal cord (SC) and peripheral lymph nodes (PLN) tissues using the Trizol method according to manufacturer’s instructions (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). RNA was further purified utilizing the RNEasy kit utilizing genomic DNA eliminator columns and subsequent on-column DNase treatment to eliminate genomic DNA contamination (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). RNA (2 µg) was reverse transcribed using the Transcriptor First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, IN) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Probe-based quantitative real-time PCR was performed for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Bcl-2, and Bax. ?-actin was included as the housekeeping gene. Primer/Probe sets were designed using the Universal Probe Design software (Roche). Primers were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO), and probes were purchased from Roche. Amplifications were performed using TaqMan® Universal PCR Master Mix (Roche) on a SmartCycler (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA), programmed for 95°C for 10 min, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 15 s and 60°C for 1 min, with detection of signal during the annealing/amplification stage. Results were calculated via the Pfaffl method (Pfaffl 2001) and are expressed as fold change in 670 nm treated mice relative to gene expression in samples isolated from sham treated animals at the same disease stage.

Nitrite Determination

Draining PLN were pooled from 4 mice 10 days post immunization (dpi) with 100 µg MOG35–55. Single cell suspensions were prepared, and cells (2.5×106/mL) were cultured in supplemented RPMI 1640 [10% FCS, penicillin (100 U/mL)/streptomycin (100 ug/mL), L-glutamate (2 mM), Sodium pyruvate (0.1 mM), 2-mecarptoethanol (50 mM)] in 96-well flat-bottom plates (BD Biosciences, San Jose, California, USA) in the presence or absence of 10 ug/mL MOG35–55 peptide. Stimulation of cells with concanavalin A (ConA; 1 ug/mL) served as a positive control for cell viability. For experiments with cells isolated from iNOS?/? mice, 100 µmol/L of the NO donor [diethylenetriamine (DETA)-NONOate (DETA); Sigma, St. Loius, MO] prepared in sterile PBS was added to cell suspensions, as indicated. Cells were spiked with donor at 48 hours to maintain 100 uM/L of chemicals in the cells, based on the half-life of these chemicals. Cell cultures were treated once daily with 670 nm light or no light treatment beginning 2 h after plating and continuing at 24 h intervals for 96 h. Cell culture supernatants were isolated at 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h, and analyzed for nitric oxide generation was determined by measuring the accumulated nitrite in cell culture supernatants using the Griess reaction (Promega, Madison, WI). In brief, an equal volume of Griess reagent (1% sulfanilamide, 0.1% naphthalene diamine HCI, 2% H3PO4), was added to cell culture supernatant. Following 10 min incubation at room temperature, color production was measured at 550 nm on a Synergy™ HT Multi-Detection Microplate Reader (BioTek, Winooski, VT), and the nitrite level was calculated according to a standard curve of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in concentrations of 0.15 to 10 umol/ml.

Detection of Apoptosis by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL)

Apoptosis was detected using TUNEL method according to the manufacturer’s instructions (GenScript, Piscataway, NJ). 5–10 µm cryosections of OCT (Sakura, Tissue-Tek) embedded SC tissues were air-dried at room temperature for 20 minutes, and fixed in freshly prepared 4% paraformaldehyde in 1× PBS for 20 minutes. Sections were rinsed in fresh PBS and endogenous peroxidase activity quenched for 10 minutes at room temperature with 0.3% H2O2 in methanol. Sections were then permeabilized for 5 min on ice with a solution of 0.1% Triton X-100 and 0.1% sodium citrate. Labeling was done using TUNEL reaction mix (45 µl Equilibration Buffer, 1 µl biotin-11-dUTP and 4 µl TdT), incubated in a moist tray at 37°C for 60 minutes in the dark. Label was removed and sections were incubated with strepavidin-HRP at 37°C for 30 minutes in a moist chamber. Fragmented DNA was detected using DAB substrate solution (5 µl of DAB buffer, 1 µl of 30% H2O2 in 94 µl of fresh PBS). Slides were rinsed and counterstained with methylene blue, mounted with glycerol and examined with light microscope. Dark brown nuclei representative of apoptotic cells were counted by a blinded observer. Three high-power fields were counted per section, 3 sections per slide, 2 slides per mouse, and 2–3 mice per group. Apoptotic cells were counted in areas of pathology. Results are expressed as average apoptotic cells. Controls include positive and negative sections treated with DNase 1 prior to labeling or absence of TdT from the TUNEL reaction mix respectively.

Statistical Analysis

Data were analyzed and statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (GraphPad, La Jolla, CA USA). Clinical course was compared by 2-way ANOVA. Recovery analysis was compared by 1-way ANOVA. Multiple comparisons performed by Dunn’s Multiple Comparisons test. Mann-Whitney U-test and Student’s t-test performed, as appropriate. p<0.05 considered significant.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Quantum Devices (Barneveld, WI) for providing the LED arrays used in these studies.

Funding Statement

Funding was provided by Quantum Biomedical; Graduate School, UW-Milwaukee; and the College of Health Sciences, UW-Milwaukee. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Articles from PLoS ONE are provided here courtesy of Public Library of Science

J Neuroinflammation.  2012 Sep 18;9(1):219. [Epub ahead of print]

Low-level laser therapy regulates microglial function through Src-mediated signaling pathways: implications for neurodegenerative diseases.

Song S, Zhou F, Chen WR, Xing D.

Abstract

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND:

Activated microglial cells are an important pathological component in brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of He-Ne (632.8 nm, 64.6 mW/cm2) low-level laser therapy (LLLT), a non-damaging physical therapy, on activated microglia, and the subsequent signaling events of LLLT-induced neuroprotective effects and phagocytic responses.

METHODS:

To model microglial activation, we treated the microglial BV2 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For the LLLT-induced neuroprotective study, neuronal cells with activated microglial cells in a Transwell[trade mark sign] cell-culture system were used. For the phagocytosis study, fluorescence-labeled microspheres were added into the treated microglial cells to confirm the role of LLLT.

RESULTS:

Our results showed that LLLT (20 J/cm2) could attenuate toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated proinflammatory responses in microglia, characterized by down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression and nitric oxide (NO) production. LLLT-triggered TLR signaling inhibition was achieved by activating tyrosine kinases Src and Syk, which led to MyD88 tyrosine phosphorylation, thus impairing MyD88-dependent proinflammatory signaling cascade. In addition, we found that Src activation could enhance Rac1 activity and F-actin accumulation that typify microglial phagocytic activity. We also found that Src/PI3K/Akt inhibitors prevented LLLT-stimulated Akt (Ser473 and Thr308) phosphorylation and blocked Rac1 activity and actin-based microglial phagocytosis, indicating the activation of Src/PI3K/Akt/Rac1 signaling pathway.

CONCLUSIONS:

The present study underlines the importance of Src in suppressing inflammation and enhancing microglial phagocytic function in activated microglia during LLLT stimulation. We have identified a new and important neuroprotective signaling pathway that consists of regulation of microglial phagocytosis and inflammation under LLLT treatment. Our research may provide a feasible therapeutic approach to control the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

ith multiple sclerosis.

[Article in Polish]
Kubsik A, Klimkiewicz P, Woldaska-Okoska M.

Source

Klinika Rehabilitacji i Medycyny Fizykalnej, Oddzia Fizjoterapii, Uniwersytet Medyczny wodzi. anna.kubsik@wp.pl

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the nervous system, which main manifestations are disseminated demyelinated the changes in the central nervous system. The pathogenesis of this disease is still not known, the curative treatment is not possible. In connection with the alleged autoimmune genesis of MS patients are administered immunomodulatory drugs. Patients with multiple sclerosis suffer from a number of symptoms associated with this disease. The aim of this article is to present the main clinical symptoms characteristic of MS and to present biological effects of low-energy lasers used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

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PLoS One. 2012; 7(1): e30655.
Published online 2012 Jan 24. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0030655
PMCID: PMC3265499
PMID: 22292010

Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 Mice by Photobiomodulation Induced by 670 nm Light

Kamaldeen A. Muili, ¤ Sandeep Gopalakrishnan, Stacy L. Meyer, Janis T. Eells, and Jeri-Anne Lyons *
Joseph Najbauer, Editor
Department of Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America,
City of Hope National Medical Center and Beckman Research Institute, United States of America
* E-mail: ude.mwu@snoylj

Conceived and designed the experiments: J-AL JTE. Performed the experiments: KAM SG SLM J-AL. Analyzed the data: J-AL KAM JTE. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: J-AL JTE. Wrote the paper: KAM J-AL SG JTE.

¤Current address: Department of Pediatrics/Gastroenterology, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
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Abstract

Background

The approved immunomodulatory agents for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) are only partially effective. It is thought that the combination of immunomodulatory and neuroprotective strategies is necessary to prevent or reverse disease progression. Irradiation with far red/near infrared light, termed photobiomodulation, is a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Data suggests that near-infrared light functions through neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We sought to investigate the clinical effect of photobiomodulation in the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis.

Methodology/Principal Findings

The clinical effect of photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light was investigated in the C57BL/6 mouse model of EAE. Disease was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) according to standard laboratory protocol. Mice received 670 nm light or no light treatment (sham) administered as suppression and treatment protocols. 670 nm light reduced disease severity with both protocols compared to sham treated mice. Disease amelioration was associated with down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?) and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusion/Significance

These studies document the therapeutic potential of photobiomodulation with 670 nm light in the EAE model, in part through modulation of the immune response.

Introduction

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by demyelination, axonal degeneration and subsequent loss of motor function. MS is considered autoimmune in nature, mediated by myelin-reactive CD4+ T cells. Recent studies suggest mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to chronic MS . Currently approved therapies, including the ?-Interferons, Copaxone, and monoclonal antibody therapies, target the immune response and are only partially effective . Until therapeutic strategies addressing the ongoing demyelination and axonal damage are developed, treatment of MS will remain incomplete.

Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-studied, CD4+ T-cell-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and serves as the primary animal model for MS . Much of what is understood of the pathogenesis of MS, as well as many therapeutic advances are derived from studies using the EAE model. It is generally accepted that autoreactive, myelin-specific T cells are responsible for disease initiation. However, as has been noted in MS, recent studies suggest that oxidative/nitrosative stress play a key role in the pathogenesis of EAE. Studies by Qi et al. demonstrated nitrosylation of CNS proteins very early in the disease process, prior to any evidence of immune infiltration, and prevention of nitrosoxidative stress ameliorated clinical EAE . Studies by Dutta et al support a central role for oxidative/nitrosative stress in the axonal loss leading to permanent disability .

Photobiomodulation (PBM) employing light in the far-red (FR) to near-infrared (NIR) range (630–1000 nm) with low-energy lasers or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays has shown a therapeutic effect in various clinical conditions. Far-red/near-infrared light has been used clinically for 30 years for the treatment of soft tissue injuries and to promote wound healing . More recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of photobiomodulation with FR/NIR light in the treatment of chemotherapy or radiation-induced mucositis in bone marrow transplant patients , ischemic injury in the heart , and neurodegenerative diseases . The therapeutic mechanism of photobiomodulation is believed to function through activation of cellular photoacceptors and subsequent activation of transcription factors leading to improved energy metabolism and mitochondrial function . As MS pathogenesis is due to an interaction of chronic inflammatory processes and mitochondrial dysfunction, we hypothesized that FR/NIR light therapy would ameliorate disease pathogenesis in MOG35–55 peptide-induced EAE in C57BL/6 (B6) mice.

Previous studies indicate that the photoacceptor through which FR/NIR light mediates the observed effects is cytochrome C oxidase, a key molecule in the electron transport chain leading to production of ATP . The action spectrum of FR/NIR light overlays the absorption spectrum of cytochrome C oxidase: the biological activity of FR/NIR light is most pronounced around 670 nm and 830 nm with a nadir in both spectra around 728 nm, mirroring the absorption spectrum of cytochrome C oxidase . Based on previous studies characterizing the action spectrum of FR/NIR light and the absorption spectrum of cytochrome c oxidase, we investigated therapeutic potential of photobiomodulation by 670 nm light for the treatment of MS using the EAE model. Treatment with 670 nm light prior to or with the onset of clinical signs resulted in amelioration of clinical EAE. Subsequent studies revealed decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and increased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines by lymph node cells exposed to 670 nm light compared to sham treatment. Similar results were observed in spinal cords isolated from mice over the course of EAE. Hence, our findings support the hypothesis that photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light ameliorates disease severity in EAE.

Results

Treatment with 670 nm Light Modulates Cytokine Production by Lymph Node Cells

Previous studies demonstrated up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines and down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines by FR/NIR light in animal models of acute and chronic inflammation . To determine if a similar effect is evident in antigen-specific immune responses, the direct effect of 670 nm light on cytokine production by antigen-primed immune cells was investigated. Peripheral lymph node cells isolated from MOG35–55-immunized mice were cultured with cognate peptide and received once daily treatment with 670 nm light or no light treatment for 96 h, and cytokine production was analyzed in supernatants. An antigen-specific effect of 670 nm light on cytokine production was noted, with down-regulation of IFN-?, but up-regulation of IL-10 protein expression compared to cells not exposed to light treatment (Figure 1A, P<0.0001 and Figure 1B, P<0.0001). Stimulation of lymph node cells with the mitogenic lectin, Concanavalin A (ConA), resulted in cytokine expression similar to that observed by sham treated cells (Figure 1). A small but significant increase in IFN-? was noted by ConA-stimulated lymph node cells treated with 670 nm light vs. sham treated cells at 96 h (Figure 1C). No significant difference in IL-10 expression by ConA stimulated cells was noted between treatment groups (Figure 1D).

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670 nm light modulates in vitro cytokine production by lymph node cells.

Draining peripheral lymph nodes (PLN) were isolated at 10 days post immunization (dpi) from mice immunized with MOG35–55. Single cell suspensions were cultured (A,B) in the presence or absence of MOG35–55 or (C,D) with ConA (1 µg/mL) and were treated with 670 nm light (open symbols) or received no light treatment (closed symbols) once daily for 96 h. Cytokine ELISA was performed on supernatants for (A,C) IFN-? and (B,D) IL-10. Data reported as background-subtracted (e.g., in the absence of MOG35–55peptide) antigen-specific cytokine secretion. Data representative of 3 separate experiments. Error bars: SD. P<0.0001 by 2-way ANOVA. Multiple comparisons made via Bonferroni posttest; **P<0.01; ***P<0.001.

Amelioration of Clinical EAE by Treatment with 670 nm Light

The immune modulation by 670 nm light observed in vitro would be expected to result in clinical improvement of EAE. The therapeutic potential of 670 nm light in the treatment of EAE/MS was initially investigated with a suppression protocol. Following immunization with MOG35–55, mice received 670 nm±30 nm light emitted by an LED array (75 cm2) at a fluence of 5 J/cm2 at the dorsal surface of the mouse beginning the day after immunization and continuing for 10 days. Disease was compared to sham treated animals subjected to restraint stress only. Animals receiving 670 nm light treatment presented with clinically less severe disease compared to animals exposed to restraint stress only (Figure 2A, B; P<0.0001 by 2-way ANOVA; Area Under the Curve (AUC) P<0.001 by 1-way ANOVA). The beneficial effect of 670 nm light was evident as a more sustained recovery in 670 nm treated animals compared to restraint stress-treated group (Figure 2C; P<0.01). This effect was temporary, as treated animals did eventually relapse to similar disease severity as sham treated animals (Figure 2A).

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670 nm light treatment reduces mean clinical score and signs of MOG-induced EAE.

EAE was induced with MOG35–55, and mice were treated with 670 nm light or no light (restraint) stress [sham]. (A) Mice treated with the suppression protocol. 670 nm light (-?-; n?=?8) or sham (-?-; n?=?9). Representative 3 separate experiments with total n?=?36 (670 nm light); n?=?37 (sham). Error bars represent SEM. P<0.0001 by 2-way ANOVA. (B) Clinical course was plotted and the area under the curve (AUC) for all mice treated with the suppression protocol was determined and compared by 1-way ANOVA. Horizontal line: median value; Error bars: SEM. P<0.001. (C) duration of recovery for all mice treated with the suppression protocol was determined by counting the days of recovery from peak disease (decrease in 1 disease score) to the time of relapse (increase of 1 disease score); horizontal line: median value. (D) Mice were treated with 670 nm light (-?-; n?=?10) or no light (restraint stress; -?-; n?=?7) using the double-treatment protocol. Representative of 3 separate experiments with a total n?=?24 (670 nm) or 2 separate experiments n?=?14 (restraint only-sham). Error bars represent SEM. P<0.0001 by 2-way ANOVA. (E) The AUC of clinical disease curves for all mice treated with the double treatment was determined; horizontal line: median value. Error bars: SEM; P?=?0.0003 by 1-Way ANOVA. **P<0.01; ***P<0.001.

To address whether established disease could be ameliorated after the onset of clinical signs, 670 nm light therapy was initiated on the day of disease onset. Initial studies demonstrated a similar effect on disease course as was noted with the suppression protocol when animals received 670 nm light for 7 days beginning the day of disease onset (“Onset Protocol”), including eventual relapse to similar disease severity (not shown). In an attempt to improve the clinical efficacy of photobiomodulation by 670 nm light, the “Double-treatment Protocol” was developed. Treatment was initiated on the day of onset and continued for 7 days. This was followed by a 7 day “rest” period when animals received no light treatment and a subsequent 7 day treatment period. Comparison of disease severity in 670 nm light treated animals vs. those treated with restraint stress only revealed an improved clinical effect with this modified treatment protocol (Figure 2D; P<0.0001 by 2-way ANOVA; Figure 2E: AUC: P?=?0.0003 by 1-way ANOVA). Furthermore, the observed treatment of 670 nm light was sustained throughout the duration of the experiment. Thus, photobiomodulation with 670 nm light showed a beneficial effect on the clinical course of actively induced EAE.

Treatment with 670 nm Light Modulates Cytokine Production Over the Course of EAE

In vitro studies suggested that 670 nm light modulates antigen-specific cytokine production, shifting the balance of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in a manner that would be beneficial to the clinical course of EAE. To determine if a similar cytokine shift could be detected in treated mice over the course of EAE, gene expression was assayed by QPCR of cDNA from peripheral lymph nodes (PLN) and spinal cords (SC) isolated over the course of EAE from mice treated with 670 nm light or restraint stress by the suppression protocol. Similar to the in vitro observations, IFN-? (Figure 3A) and TNF-? (Figure 3B) expression was significantly down-regulated in SC of EAE mice treated with 670 nm light compared with restraint-only treated animals. A concomitant up-regulation in IL-4 and IL-10 was noted in the spinal cord over the course of EAE (Figure 3C, D). Similar shifts in cytokine expression in the PLN at peak disease were also observed (data not shown).

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The suppression treatment protocol results in cytokine modulation within the CNS over the course of EAE.

Spinal cords (SC) were isolated from MOG35–55-immunized mice treated with the suppression protocol and QPCR was performed to quantify cytokine gene expression. Relative gene expression was determined by the Paffl method (2000) Gene expression was normalized at each disease stage with sham treated mice. (A) INF-?; (B) TNF-?; (C) IL-4; (D) IL-10. n?=?4 mice per group. Error bars indicated SD between 2 independent experiments. Data analyzed 2-way ANOVA. Multiple comparisons by Bonferroni post-test. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.0001, n.s?=?not significant.

To determine whether similar cytokine modulation could be detected with the treatment of established disease, cytokine expression within the PLN and SC over the course of disease from animals treated with the double-treatment protocol was analyzed (Figure 4). A non-significant decrease in proinflammatory cytokine gene expression was noted in both PLN (data not shown) and SC (Figure 4A, B). However, increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression was noted at both sites, with significant up-regulation of IL-4 at peak of acute disease (Figure 4C and data not shown) and significant up-regulation of IL-10 during chronic disease (Figure 4D and data not shown).

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The Double-Treatment protocol results in up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines within the CNS over the course of EAE.

Spinal cords (SC) were isolated from MOG35–55-immunized mice treated with the double-treatment protocol and QPCR was performed to quantify cytokine gene expression. Gene expression was normalized at each disease stage with sham treated mice. (A) INF-?; (B) TNF-?; (C) IL-4; (D) IL-10. n?=?4 mice per group. Error bars indicate SD between 2 independent experiments. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. Multiple comparisons by Bonferroni post-test. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.0001, n.s.?=?not significant.

Discussion

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a leading cause of neurologic disability in young adults. Disease pathogenesis is complex. Based on studies in the EAE model, disease is believed to be initiated by autoreactive CD4+ Th1 and/or Th17 lymphocytes specific for myelin proteins . These cells are activated in the periphery by unknown mechanisms and infiltrate the CNS where they secrete proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-17) to initiate and propagate a proinflammatory response leading to demyelination of CNS axons by multiple mechanisms, including: cytokine-mediated demyelination by TNF? ; antibody-mediated mechanisms, ± complement ; macrophage/phagocytic mechanisms ; and oxidative stress . Ongoing insult leads to axonal loss and permanent disability . More recent studies indicate that disease progression is due to non-immune mechanism, suggesting a role for oxidative stress in the axonal loss occurring late in the disease process .

The FDA-approved therapeutics for MS act through immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory mechanisms, targeting those processes important to the initiation of clinical activity associated with the relapsing/remitting phase of disease . These agents slow disease progression but do not prevent it, and are ineffective in secondary progressive or primary progressive disease, perhaps because they fail to provide a neuroprotective component. Thus, the development of new agents or adjunct therapies preventing demyelination or axonal loss, or promoting remyelination and oligodendrocyte function, is of great interest.

The therapeutic application of light to elicit a biological response has been studied using different modalities and different wavelengths. Various approaches, all involving introduction of an exogenous photosensitizer which is then activated to elicit a clinical effect, have been employed in a variety of systems, including the EAE model . The biological response of ultraviolet light is well recognized , and has been studied in the EAE model . Photobiomodulation, also referred to as Low Level Light Therapy (LLLT), as employed in the current studies, differs from these previous modalities in the use of FR/NIR light delivered in the absence of an exogenous photosensitive moiety (reviewed in ). Photobiomodulation has recently attracted increased attention. In particular, photobiomodulation performed with FR/NIR light has demonstrated efficacy in chronic wound healing in clinical and experimental systems  and for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases , including Parkinson’s disease , retinitis pigmentosa , and stroke . As MS pathogenesis is proinflammatory and neurodegenerative, we investigated the therapeutic potential of FR/NIR light using the EAE model.

Data presented demonstrate that photobiomodulation by 670 nm light led to amelioration of the clinical severity of MOG35–55 induced EAE compared to sham-treated animals when treatment was initiated following immunization but prior to onset of clinical signs (e.g., suppression protocol) and by a single 7 day treatment protocol initiated on the day of disease onset (e.g., treatment protocol). Interestingly, the effect noted with these 2 protocols (e.g., decreased severity of the acute phase and increased duration of recovery) was similar. Furthermore, no effect on the onset of clinical signs was noted with the suppression protocol. These data suggest that there is no effect on the induction of the autoimmune response, but rather on the pathogenic mechanisms affecting the disease process.

The efficacy of the clinical effect of 670 nm light improved when a second treatment period was added (e.g., double-treatment protocol), leading to sustained clinical improvement in affected animals. The improved efficacy of the double-treatment protocol is explained by the current understanding of disease pathogenesis and the therapeutic mechanism of photobiomodulation. MS and EAE are, by nature, relapsing-remitting diseases, with initial attacks due to immunoregulatory mechanisms. While the B6 model of EAE employed here displays a more chronic phenotype, mice do often times recover partially from peak disease scores attained during the acute phase. Disease progression or sustained neurological deficit is thought to be due to oxidative damage to CNS axons. Photobiomodulation mediated by FR/NIR light is hypothesized to induce gene transcription, mediated by interaction of FR/NIR light with the cytochrome c oxidase photoacceptor . Cytochrome c oxidase is an important participant in the electron transport chain, critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial function. The molecule binds, interchangeably, molecular oxygen and nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is known to mediate intracellular signal transduction cascades and communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus . Thus, interaction of FR/NIR light with cytochrome c oxidase is thought to lead to the release of nitric oxide, initiating signaling transduction cascades culminating in activation of transcription and translation of nuclear-encoded proteins, leading to the observed effects of photobiomodulation . A recent study by Chen et al suggests that the observed effects are at least in part mediated by the transcription factor, NF?B, and an increase in cellular ATP synthesis . In the EAE model, these effects are apparent as down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus, gene induction by suppression and treatment protocols would be expected to be similar. However, with the cessation of the suppression protocol at or around the day of onset, gene transcription would eventually return to pre-treatment levels, thus abrogating the protective effect of FR/NIR light. On the other hand, the double-treatment protocol would be expected to sustain gene transcription and improve the clinical effect.

The structure of the double treatment protocol, with inclusion of a 7 day rest period, was developed with insight provided by other protocols not presented here. For example, early studies employed a protocol in which treatment was initiated the day after immunization and continued through the peak of disease. This protocol resulted in a worsening of clinical signs in 670 nm-treated animals compared to sham-treated mice. This could be due to the dual role of iNOS/nitric oxide in regulation of EAE and the immune response . These studies indicated that nitric oxide is important in regulating T cell activation to neuroantigens during disease initiation  while playing a pathogenic role in ongoing disease . The 7 day rest period typically occurs during the remission/recovery phase of disease when the immune response responsible for relapse is being primed, and treatment is again initiated at or around the day of the first indications of relapse. Thus, this 7 day rest period may be providing an opportunity for important immunomodulatory functions of nitric oxide to occur, preventing excessive activation of autoreactive T cells, while subsequent treatment is down-regulating the pathogenic contribution of nitric oxide to disease progression. In support of this, more recent studies incorporating a third treatment period following a second 7 day rest demonstrated continued suppression of clinical signs in treated animals.

In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate modulation of pro-inflammatory vs. anti-inflammatory cytokines by 670 nm light in a manner consistent with the observed effects on disease course. It is interesting to note that immunomodulation appears to require signaling through antigen-specific mechanisms (i.e., the T cell receptor; TcR), as evidenced by a lack of cytokine modulation when cells are stimulated with ConA. ConA is a mitogenic lectin that activates T cells in a polyclonal manner via cross-linking of cell-surface ?-glycans. It is generally used as a positive control for cell viability and the ability to respond to appropriate stimulatory signals. It does not interact with nor signal through the antigen-specific TcR and therefore activates different signal transduction cascades than would antigen-specific activation through the TcR and requisite co-stimulatory pathways (e.g., CD28). This observation could not only have relevance to the clinical application of 670 nm-mediated photobiomodulation but could also provide insight into the mechanisms behind the observed clinical effects.

The neuroprotection afforded by FR/NIR light noted in other systems is thought to be due to down-regulation of oxidative stress and improved cytoprotective mechanisms . Indeed, ongoing studies suggest that similar mechanisms are involved in the observed effect of 670 nm light on the EAE disease course. However, given the autoimmune nature of MS and the described complications associated with monoclonal antibody therapies , as well as the known effects on chronic inflammation, it is important to understand the effect of FR/NIR light on the immune response. Understanding of the effect of FR/NIR light on immunity is limited . Data from in vitro and ex vivo studies presented here demonstrate an immunomodulatory effect of 670 nm light on antigen-specific cytokine production, with down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, IFN-? and TNF-?, and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10. These cytokine changes would be expected to have a beneficial effect in the EAE model and on the clinical course of MS .

Ongoing studies seek to develop photobiomodulation as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of MS, used in conjunction with the currently approved immunomodulatory agents. However, several questions need to be answered before translation into human system will be possible, including optimization of treatment wavelength, the nature of the treatment device, and the penetration of light to affected structures. A recent comprehensive review indicates photobiomodulation may achieve different effector functions, therapeutic or disease aggravation depending on choice of photobiomodulation parameters. These parameters include; 1) the optical properties of tissues, and 2) dositometry (i.e irradiance and dosing) . A primary question that needs to be addressed before these questions can be answered is whether the observed effects are due to systemic effects or targeted (e.g., within the CNS) effects of light on the system. The total body irradiation employed here leaves this up to debate. The total body irradiation used here could result in systemic, transcutaneous effects as well as effects mediated by transmission of light through the optic nerve. On the one hand, the immunomodulation noted in the current studies may support a systemic effect, or at least an effect in the periphery as opposed to the CNS, as the disease-inducing T-cells must be activated in the periphery in order to traverse the blood brain barrier and cause disease . In addition, the immunomodulatory effects noted in the suppression protocol would have been primed in the lymph nodes. On the other hand, light would also be transmitted via the optic nerve or could directly penetrate the spinal cord. Ongoing studies demonstrate decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis within the spinal cord of treated animals. Furthermore, recent studies utilizing a similar LED device demonstrated that transmission of light via the optic nerve preserved CNS function following transection of the optic nerve . These will be challenging questions to answer, and it is possible that both systemic and targeted mechanisms contribute to the observed clinical effects. Further studies and procurement of additional instrumentation will be necessary to address these questions, and the answers to these questions will be important to the translation of these studies to the human population.

Several studies have established the role of immune system in EAE and MS . Recent studies have implicated other pathogenic mechanisms, including mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative/nitrosative stress in EAE and MS . Data presented here show that treatment with 670 nm light ameliorates disease severity in EAE, in part through immunomodulatory mechanisms. Ongoing studies further investigate the observed immune modulation and address the role of FR/NIR light in preservation of mitochondrial function and remediation of oxidative stress in the EAE model. These experiments suggest a combination of both mechanisms in the amelioration of EAE, indicating that photobiomodulation may be

Materials and Methods

Animals

Specific pathogen-free female C57BL/6 (B6) WT mice were bred in-house from breeding pairs purchased from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Mice were maintained in micro-isolator cages in an AAALAC-accredited facility in accordance with University and NIH guidelines. All animals were supplied with food and water ad libitum and maintained on a 12 h light/dark schedule in a temperature and humidity-controlled environment.

Antigens and EAE induction

The mouse MOG35–55 peptide (MEVGWYRSPFSRVVHLYRNGK) was synthesized and purity confirmed by HPLC (GenScript, Piscataway, NJ). EAE was induced in mature mice (6–8 weeks old) by immunization with 100 µg MOG35–55 peptide emulsified (1:1) in IFA with 300 µg Mycobacterium tuberculosis, strain H37RA (Bectin Dickinson, FranklinLakes, NJ). Each mouse received 0.05 mL emulsion (s.c.) at four sites. In addition, animals received pertussis toxin (300 ng i.p.; List Laboratories, Campbell, CA) at 0 h and 72 h post immunization. Animals were followed for the development of EAE and graded clinically on a scale of 0–5 by a blinded observer [0: healthy, no signs of EAE; 1: loss of tail tone; 2: hind limb weakness; 3: paresis or paralysis of one hind limb; 4: paralysis of both hind limbs; 5: dead or moribund].

LED Treatment

Gallium/Aluminum/Arsenide (GaAlA) LED arrays (75 cm2) of 670 nm (LED bandwidth 25–30 nm at Full Width Max Power [FWHM]) were obtained from Quantum Devices (Barneveld, WI). Unanesthetized Mice were placed individually into a polypropylene restraint device (12.7×9×7.6 cm), and the LED array was positioned directly over the animal at a distance of 2 cm, covering the entire chamber and exposing the entire dorsal surface. Treatment consisted of once daily irradiation at 670 nm for 3 min, at a power intensity of 28 mW/cm2 (total power output: 2100 mW) and an energy density of 5 J/cm2 (375 J daily total). To determine the energy density at the level of the spinal cord, a small incision was made at the base of the tail, and a probe was inserted underneath the skin at the base of the brain, demonstrating an energy density of 12 mJ/cm2 (432 mJ total energy administered daily) at the level of the spinal cord. As indicated, “restraint only” stress was employed, in which mice were placed in the restraint device for 3 min but not exposed to light. The Suppression Protocol consisted of once daily treatment for 10 consecutive days starting 24 h post immunization, resulting in a total of 4320 J at the level of the spinal cord administered to the animal over the course of treatment. Treatment protocols were performed as the “Onset Protocol”, consisting of once daily treatment for 7 consecutive days beginning the day of onset of clinical signs (clinical score?=?1.0; 3024 J total energy administered), and the “Double Treatment Protocol”, consisting of once daily treatments initiated on the day of onset of clinical signs for 7 days, followed by 7 days rest, and a subsequent 7 day treatment period (6048 J total energy administered). Clinical disease was followed for an additional 7 days following cessation of the second treatment period.

Real-time PCR

Mice were anesthetized with ketamine cocktail and perfused with 60 mL cold PBS via cardiac puncture. Total RNA was isolated from the spinal cord (SC) and the draining peripheral lymph nodes (PLN; e.g., popliteal, brachial and axillary lymph nodes.) using the Trizol method according to manufacturer’s instructions (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). RNA was further purified utilizing the RNEasy kit, with genomic DNA elimination columns and subsequent on-column DNase treatment to eliminate genomic DNA contamination (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). RNA (2 µg) was reverse transcribed using oligo dT primer (Operon, Huntsville, AL) and MMLV reverse transcriptase (Promega, Madison, WI) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Probe-based quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) was performed for IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, IL-4. ?-actin was included as the housekeeping gene, and water blanks were included in all experiments. Primer/Probe sets were designed using the Universal Probe Design software (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, IN). Primers were designed to span introns, when possible. Primers were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO), and probes were purchased from Roche Applied Science. Amplifications were performed using TaqMan®Universal PCR Master Mix (Roche Applied Science) on a SmartCycler (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, California), programmed for 95°C for 10 min, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 15 s and 60°C for 1 min, with detection of signal during the annealing/amplification segment. Results were calculated via the Pfaffl method (Pfaffl 2001) and are expressed as fold change in 670 nm treated mice relative to gene expression in samples isolated from sham treated animals at the same disease stage.

Cytokine ELISA

Draining PLN were pooled from 6 mice 10 days post immunization (dpi) with 100 µg MOG35–55. Single cell suspensions were prepared, and cells (2.5×106/mL) were cultured in supplemented RPMI 1640 [10% FCS, penicillin (100 U/mL)/streptomycin (100 µg/mL), L-glutamate (2 mM), Sodium pyruvate (0.1 mM), 2-mecarptoethanol (50 mM)] in 96-well flat-bottom plates (BD Biosciences, San Jose, California, USA) in the presence or absence of 10 µg/mL MOG35–55 peptide. Stimulation of cells with concanavalin A (ConA; 1 µg/mL) served as a positive control for cell viability. Cell cultures were treated once daily with 670 nm light or no light treatment beginning 2 h after plating and continuing at 24 h intervals for 96 h. Cell culture supernatants were isolated at 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 120 h and analyzed for IFN? (<2.0 pg/mL detection limit) and IL-10 (<4.0 pg/mL detection limit) utilizing Quantikine kits according to manufacturer’s instructions (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). Data is reported as background-corrected (e.g., in the absence of peptide), antigen-specific cytokine secretion.

Data Analysis

Data were analyzed and statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism 4.0 (GraphPad, La Jolla, CA USA). Clinical course was compared by 2-way ANOVA. AUC analysis was compared by 1-way ANOVA (Kruskal-Wallis test); multiple comparisons performed by Dunn’s Multiple Comparisons test or Bonferroni correction, as indicated. Mann-Whitney U-test and Student’s t-test performed, as appropriate. P<0.05 was considered significant.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Quantum Devices (Barneveld, WI) for providing the LED arrays used in these studies.

Footnotes

Competing Interests: The study was partly funded by Quantum Biomedical. Dr. Eells has served as a consultant for Quantum Biomedical. Dr. Lyons and Dr. Eells are listed as researchers on the Quantum Biomedical website. There are no patents, products in development, or marketed products to declare. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors. No other authors have any conflicts to declare.

Funding: Funding was provided by Quantum Biomedical ($5000 for pilot studies); Graduate School, UW-Milwaukee ($10,000); and the College of Health Sciences, UW-Milwaukee: ($5000 [JAL]; $500 [KAM and SLM]). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Wiad Lek. 2012;65(1):55-61.

[Application of laser therapy in the physiotherapy of patients with multiple sclerosis].

[Article in Polish]
Kubsik A1, Klimkiewicz P, Wolda?ska-Oko?ska M.

Author information

  • 1Klinika Rehabilitacji i Medycyny Fizykalnej, Oddzia? Fizjoterapii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w ?odzi. anna.kubsik@wp.pl

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the nervous system, which main manifestations are disseminated demyelinated the changes in the central nervous system. The pathogenesis of this disease is still not known, the curative treatment is not possible. In connection with the alleged autoimmune genesis of MS patients are administered immunomodulatory drugs. Patients with multiple sclerosis suffer from a number of symptoms associated with this disease. The aim of this article is to present the main clinical symptoms characteristic of MS and to present biological effects of low-energy lasers used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

 

Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5229, pp. 97-103 (2003). Laser Technology VII: Applications of Lasers. DOI: 10.1117/12.520611

Laser biostimulation of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis in respect to the biological influence of laser light.

Peszynski-Drews, Cezary; Klimek, Andrzej; Sopinski, Marek; Obrzejta, Dominik

AA (Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland)), AB (Copernicus Hospital (Poland)), AC(Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland)), AD (Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland))

The authors discuss the results, obtained so far during three years’ clinical examination, of laser therapy in the treatment of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. They regard both the results of former laboratory experiments and so far discovered mechanisms of biological influence of laser light as an objective explanation of high effectiveness of laser therapy in the case of this so far incurable disease. They discuss wide range of biological mechanisms of laser therapy, examined so far on different levels (cell, tissue, organ), allowing the explanation of beneficial influence of laser light in pathogenetically different morbidities.