Snake Venom

Lasers Med Sci.  2011 Apr 12. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of photobiostimulation on edema and hemorrhage induced by Bothrops moojeni venom.

Nadur-Andrade N, Barbosa AM, Carlos FP, Lima CJ, Cogo JC, Zamuner SR.


Laboratory of Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Research and Development, University of Vale do Paraíba, São José dos Campos, Brazil.


Antivenom (AV) treatment has been ineffective in neutralizing the severe local fast-developing tissue damage following snake-bite envenoming. We studied the effectiveness of low-level laser (LLL) and light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation alone or in combination with AV in reducing local edema formation and hemorrhage induced by Bothrops moojeni venom (BmV) in mice. Edema formation was induced by injection of 1 ?g per paw of BmV into the right paw and was evaluated before and at several intervals after BmV intraplantar injection. Hemorrhagic activity was evaluated after intradermal injection of 20 ?g of BmV by measuring the diameter of the hemorrhagic area on the inner side of the skin. The site of BmV injection was irradiated by LLL or LED 30 min after BmV inoculation. AV was also administered intravenously 30 min after BmV injection. Irradiation with LLL at a wavelength of 685 nm and a dose of 2.2 J/cm(2) and with a red LED and an infrared LED at wavelengths of 635 nm and 945 nm, respectively, and a dose of 4 J/cm(2) reduced edema formation and hemorrhage induced by BmV (p?<?0.05). The combined AV and LLL or LED treatment showed the same reduction as LLL or LED irradiation separately. In conclusion, both LLL and LED irradiation reduced venom-induced local effects even though symptoms were already present. Thus, the effect of phototherapy in reducing local effects induced by BmV may be clinically relevant.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2009 Jun 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Myonecrosis Induced by Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom.

Barbosa AM, Villaverde AB, Sousa LG, Munin E, Fernandez CM, Cogo JC, Zamuner SR.

1 Laboratory of Inflammation, Institute of Research and Development, University of Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP) , São Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) alone or in combination with antivenom (AV) to reduce myonecrosis induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.

Background Data: Myonecrosis is the most pronounced local effect caused by B. jararacussu venom. AV therapy and other first-aid treatments do not reverse these local effects.

Material and Methods: Male Swiss mice were used. Myonecrosis was induced by injection of 0.6 mg/kg of B. jararacussu venom in the right gastrocnemius muscle and was evaluated at 3 or 24 h after venom injection. The site of venom administration was irradiated for 29 s with a low power semiconductor laser (685 nm) at a dose of 4.2 J/cm(2). Intravenous AV therapy (0.5 mL dose) was administered at different times: 30 min before venom injection or 0, 1, or 3 h afterward. Both AV therapy and LLLT treatments were duplicated in mice groups killed at 3 or 24 h.

Results: B. jararacussu venom caused a significant myonecrotic effect 3 and 24 h after venom injection. LLLT significantly reduced myonecrosis by 83.5% at 24 h (p < 0.05) but not at 3 h, and AV therapy alone was ineffective for reducing myonecrosis at 3 and 24 h.

Conclusion: Only LLLT significantly reduced myonecrosis of the envenomed muscle, suggesting that LLLT is a potentially therapeutic approach for treating the local effects of B. jararacussu venom.

Photochem Photobiol. 2009 Jan-Feb;85(1):63-9. Epub 2008 Jul 17.

The ability of low level laser therapy to prevent muscle tissue damage induced by snake venom.

Doin-Silva R, Baranauskas V, Rodrigues-Simioni L, da Cruz-Höfling MA.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil.


Antivenom therapy has been ineffective in neutralizing the severe local fast developing tissue damage following snakebite envenoming. Herein, some effects of in situ helium neon (HeNe) laser irradiation on rat nerve-muscle preparation injected with Bothrops jararacussu venom are described. The tibialis anterior muscle was injected with venom diluted in 0.9% saline solution (60 microg/0.02 mL) or saline solution alone. Sixty minutes after venom injection, laser (HeNe) treatment was administered at three incident energy densities: dose 1, a single exposure of 3.5 J cm(-2); dose 2, three exposures of 3.5 J cm(-2); dose 3, a single exposure of 10.5 J cm(-2). Muscle function was assessed through twitch tension recordings whereas muscle damage was evaluated through histopathologic analysis, morphometry of area of tissue affected and creatine kinase (CK) serum levels, and compared to unirradiated muscles. Laser application at the dose of 3.5 J cm(-2) reduced the area of injury by 64% (15.9 +/- 1.5%vs 44.2 +/- 5.7%), decreased the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) by 62% (11.5 +/- 2.5%vs 30.4 +/- 5.2%) and reduced CK levels by 58% (from 455 +/- 4.5% to 190.3 +/- 23.4%) when compared with unirradiated controls. Dose 2 showed a poorer benefit than dose 1, and dose 3 was ineffective in preventing the venom effects. Measurements of the absorbance of unirradiated and irradiated venom solution showed no difference in absorption spectra. In addition, no difference in the intensity of partial NMB in nerve-muscle preparation was shown by unirradiated and irradiated venom. The results indicate that the laser light did not alter venom toxicity. We conclude that HeNe laser irradiation at a dosage of 3.5 J cm(-2) effectively reduces myonecrosis and the neuromuscular transmission blocking effect caused by B. jararacussu snake venom. Thus, low level laser therapy may be a promising tool to minimize the severity of some of the local effects of snake envenoming.

Toxicon. 2008 Mar 10 [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of low-level laser therapy in the inflammatory response induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.

Barbosa AM, Villaverde AB, Guimarães-Souza L, Ribeiro W, Cogo JC, Zamuner SR.

Laboratory of Inflammation, Institute of Research and Development, University of Vale do Paraíba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, Urbanova, CEP 12244-000, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.

This article reports the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the edema formation and leukocyte influx caused by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom as an alternative treatment for Bothrops snakebites. The inflammatory reaction was induced by injection of 0.6mg/kg of B. jararacussu venom, in gastrocnemius muscle. Cell influx and edema were evaluated at 3 or 24h after venom injection. Mice were irradiated at the site of injury by a low-level laser (685nm) with a dose of 4.2J/cm(2). A therapy that combines LLLT and antivenom was also studied. B. jararacussu venom caused a significant edema formation 3 and 24h after its injection, and a prominent leukocyte infiltrate composed predominantly of neutrophils at 24h after venom inoculation. LLLT significantly reduced edema formation by 53% and 64% at 3 and 24h, respectively, and resulted in a reduction of neutrophils accumulation (P<0.05). The combined therapy showed to be more efficient than each therapy acting separately. In conclusion, LLLT significantly reduced the edema and leukocyte influx into the envenomed muscle, suggesting that LLLT should be considered as a potentially therapeutic approach for the treatment of the local effects of Bothrops species.

Lasers Surg Med. 2003;33(5):352-7.

Effects of the Ga-As laser irradiation on myonecrosis caused by Bothrops Moojeni snake venom.

Dourado DM, Fávero S, Baranauskas V, da Cruz-Höfling MA.

Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, C.P. 6109, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13 083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Viper snake envenoming induces in the victims systemic coagulopathy, and severe local tissue damage such as edema, hemorrhage, intense pain, and myonecrosis. Serumtherapy and other first-aid managements are ineffective in neutralizing these local effects. The effects of the gallium-arsenide (Ga-As) laser irradiation on mice gastrocnemius injected intramuscularly (i.m.) with Bothrops moojeni snake venom were investigated.

STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Macroscopical, histopatological, and myonecrosis quantification through serum creatine kinase (CK) evaluation was done at 3, 12, and 24 hours (two, five, and eight irradiation sessions, 4 J/cm(2), 1 minute 32 seconds per period, respectively), were done after the venom or saline injection, and in venom-unirradiated mice.

RESULTS: In unirradiated gastrocnemius, the venom induced massive hemorrhage, vascular congestion, time-progressing myonecrosis, edema, abundant inflammatory infiltrate, and high CK serum levels. Ga-As irradiation significantly decreased the amount of myonecrosis in all the periods tested (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The laser treatment significantly inhibited the ability of B. moojeni venom to rapidly disrupt the integrity of the plasma membrane.


Dourado DM, Cruz-Höfling MA.

The venom of the bothrops moojeni snake was injected into the gastroscnemius of mice to mimic the effect of a snakebite. Traditional therapies for this snakebite have proven less effective. Three groups were tested: A=saline, B=venom and C=venom+ laser. Two sessions of HeNe laser at 4 J/cm2 during 1 m 32 s were administered and the animals were sacrificed at 24 h, 3 d and 7 d, respectively. The analysis showed myonecrosis with inflammation and an extensive area of degenerated fibres. In the laser group there was, by day 3, an incipient number of regenerating fibres. Laser accelerated the phagocytosis of fibre remnants and recovery of the tissue, decreasing the oedema and increasing regeneration.