Int J Electron Healthc. 2008;4(3-4):339-49.
Static magnetotherapy for the treatment of insomnia.
Shieh YY, Tsai FY.
Department of Radiological Sciences, School of Medicine, UCIrvine Medical Center, Orange CA 92868, USA. email@example.com
Magnets have been used for centuries to treat a number of physical disorders. The vast majority of research, however, on static magnet therapy for insomnia has been confined to the auricular type of therapy, with publications limited to Chinese journals. Most of these studies have depended on the subjective self-assessment of participants rather than objective scientific measurements. In this study, the authors report the positive preliminary results of insomnia treatment using pillows with embedded magnets, magnetic insoles and TriPhase bracelets. The analysis is based on objective actigraphic and polysomnographic data. A theory of accelerated transition from wakefulness to sleep is proposed to explain the process of insomnia relief through low-strength static magnetic fields. Analysis by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used to further investigate the theory.
J Sleep Res 16(3) 253-8 (2007)
Pulsed radio-frequency electromagnetic fields: dose-dependent effects on sleep, the sleep EEG and cognitive performance
Regel SJ, Tinguely G, Schuderer J, Adam M, Kuster N, Landolt HP, Achermann P
To establish a dose-response relationship between the strength of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and previously reported effects on the brain, we investigated the influence of EMF exposure by varying the signal intensity in three experimental sessions. The head of 15 healthy male subjects was unilaterally exposed for 30 min prior to sleep to a pulse-modulated EMF (GSM handset like signal) with a 10 g-averaged peak spatial specific absorption rate of (1) 0.2 W kg(-1), (2) 5 W kg(-1), or (3) sham exposed in a double-blind, crossover design. During exposure, subjects performed two series of three computerized cognitive tasks, each presented in a fixed order [simple reaction time task, two-choice reaction time task (CRT), 1-, 2-, 3-back task]. Immediately after exposure, night-time sleep was polysomnographically recorded for 8 h. Sleep architecture was not affected by EMF exposure. Analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed a dose-dependent increase of power in the spindle frequency range in non-REM sleep. Reaction speed decelerated with increasing field intensity in the 1-back task, while accuracy in the CRT and N-back task were not affected in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, this study reveals first indications of a dose-response relationship between EMF field intensity and its effects on brain physiology as demonstrated by changes in the sleep EEG and in cognitive performance.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005;6:6214-6.
Influence of time-varying magnetic field on the release of neurotransmitters in raphe nuclei of rats.
Zhang J, Wang X, Wang M.
Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
A specially-designed time-varying magnetic field was developed to treat insomnia. Clinical results showed that this method could shorten the time to go to sleep and prolong the sleep duration. However, the mechanism of this method is still not well understood. In this study, the effect of magnetic stimulation on the release of serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA) in raphe nuclei of rats, which are known to play an important role in the sleep-wake regulation, was investigated. It was shown that there was a significant difference in the release of serotonin between control group and experimental group (p<0.01). The release of serotonin of the experimental group increased significantly. No obvious release changes of NE and DA are found (p>0.05). The results indicates that one possible mechanism of inducing sleep using specially designed magnetic field is to change the release of sleep-related neurotransmitters.
|Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2005 Feb;35(2):165-70.|
Actions of pulsed ultra-broadband electromagnetic irradiation on the EEG and sleep in laboratory animals.
Petrova EV, Gulyaeva NV, Titarov SI, Rozhnov YV, Koval’zon VM.
Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117865 Moscow, Russia.
Irradiation of animals with ultrashort impulses of ultra-broadband magnetic irradiation with an impulse repetition frequency of 6 Hz for 1 h induced changes in the spectral composition of cerebral cortex electrical activity in rats, measured over the 5 min immediately after irradiation, as compared with controls. In particular, there was suppression of frequencies close to the impulse sequence frequency, along with a decrease in interhemisphere coherence. Continuous recording of polygrams for 22 h from rabbits after irradiation revealed a “delayed” effect–a significant increase in paradoxical sleep, starting 16 h after the end of irradiation and persisting to the end of the recording period. It is suggested that irradiation has a direct action both on the mechanisms of generation of the theta rhythm (septohippocampal) and on the system controlling circadian rhythms (the suprachiasmatic nucleus-epiphysis system).
Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Jun;19(11):3099-104.
Intracortical inhibition and facilitation upon awakening from different sleep stages: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.
De Gennaro L, Bertini M, Ferrara M, Curcio G, Cristiani R, Romei V, Fratello F, Pauri F, Rossini PM.
Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università di Roma La Sapienza, Via dei Marsi 78, 00185 Rome, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
Intracortical facilitation and inhibition, as assessed by the paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation technique with a subthreshold conditioning pulse followed by a suprathreshold test pulse, was studied upon awakening from REM and slow-wave sleep (SWS). Ten normal subjects were studied for four consecutive nights. Intracortical facilitation and inhibition were assessed upon awakening from SWS and REM sleep, and during a presleep baseline. Independently of sleep stage at awakening, intracortical inhibition was found at 1-3-ms interstimulus intervals and facilitation at 7-15-ms interstimulus intervals. Motor thresholds were higher in SWS awakenings, with no differences between REM awakenings and wakefulness, while motor evoked potential amplitude to unconditioned stimuli decreased upon REM awakening as compared to the other conditions. REM sleep awakenings showed a significant increase of intracortical facilitation at 10 and 15 ms, while intracortical inhibition was not affected by sleep stage at awakening. While the dissociation between motor thresholds and motor evoked potential amplitudes could be explained by the different excitability of the corticospinal system during SWS and REM sleep, the heightened cortical facilitation upon awakening from REM sleep points to a cortical motor activation during this stage.
Neurosci Lett. 2004 May 13;362(1):31-4.
Changes of motor cortical excitability in human subjects from wakefulness to early stages of sleep: a combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalographic study.
Manganotti P, Fuggetta G, Fiaschi A.
Section of Neurological Rehabilitation, Department of Neurological and Visual Sciences, Giambattista Rossi Hospital, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. email@example.com
The effect of sleep on human motor cortical excitability was investigated by evaluating the latency and amplitude of motor evoked potentials in ten subjects using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Motor evoked potentials and electroencephalographic data were recorded simultaneously and analyzed. Recordings were performed before, during and after a sleep period. A significant decrease in motor evoked potentials amplitude and a slight change in motor evoked potentials latency were noted in the recordings during the different sleep stages with a return to baseline values on awakening. A decrease in motor cortical excitability is suggested as explaining the effect of sleep.
Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2003 Jul;89(7):786-94.
Effect of impulse extrabroad-band electromagnetic radiation on electroencephalogram and sleep in laboratory animals.
[Article in Russian]
Petrova EV, Guliaeva NV, Titarov SI, Rozhnov IuV, Koval’zon VM.
Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Acad. Sci., Russia, 117865, Moscow.
1-hour exposure to ultra-short impulse low-frequency (6 Hz) superbroad band electromagnetic radiation altered cortical EEG in rats just after the exposure and increased the paradoxical sleep in rabbits within 16-22 hours following the radiation.
Advances in Therapy, Volume 18, Number 4 / July, 2001
Impulse magnetic-field therapy for insomnia: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Rainer B. Pelka1 , Christof Jaenicke2 and Joerg Gruenwald2
(1) Universität der Bundeswehr München, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg/München, Germany. (2) PhytoPharm Consulting Institute for Phytopharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany
This 4-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of impulse magnetic-field therapy for insomnia. One hundred one patients were randomly assigned to either active treatment (n = 50) or placebo (n = 51) and allocated to one of three diagnostic groups: (1) sleep latency; (2) interrupted sleep; or (3) nightmares. Efficacy endpoints were intensity of sleep latency, frequency of interruptions, sleepiness after rising, daytime sleepiness, difficulty with concentration, and daytime headaches. In the active-treatment group, the values of all criteria were significantly lower at study end (P < .00001). The placebo group also showed significant symptomatic improvement (P < .05), but the differences between groups were highly significant (P < .00001). Seventy percent (n = 34) of the patients given active treatment experienced substantial or even complete relief of their complaints; 24% (n = 12) reported clear improvement; 6% (n = 3) noted a slight improvement. Only one placebo patient (2%) had very clear relief; 49% (n = 23) reported slight or clear improvement; and 49% (n = 23) saw no change in their symptoms. No adverse effects of treatment were reported.
J Sleep Res. 2002 Dec;11(4):289-95.
Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG.
Huber R, Treyer V, Borbély AA, Schuderer J, Gottselig JM, Landolt HP, Werth E, Berthold T, Kuster N, Buck A, Achermann P.
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Usage of mobile phones is rapidly increasing, but there is limited data on the possible effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on brain physiology. We investigated the effect of EMF vs. sham control exposure on waking regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and on waking and sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in humans. In Experiment 1, positron emission tomography (PET) scans were taken after unilateral head exposure to 30-min pulse-modulated 900 MHz electromagnetic field (pm-EMF). In Experiment 2, night-time sleep was polysomnographically recorded after EMF exposure. Pulse-modulated EMF exposure increased relative rCBF in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex ipsilateral to exposure. Also, pm-EMF exposure enhanced EEG power in the alpha frequency range prior to sleep onset and in the spindle frequency range during stage 2 sleep. Exposure to EMF without pulse modulation did not enhance power in the waking or sleep EEG. We previously observed EMF effects on the sleep EEG (A. A. Borbély, R. Huber, T. Graf, B. Fuchs, E. Gallmann and P. Achermann. Neurosci. Lett., 1999, 275: 207-210; R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbély, and P. Achermann. Neuroreport, 2000, 11: 3321-3325), but the basis for these effects was unknown. The present results show for the first time that (1) pm-EMF alters waking rCBF and (2) pulse modulation of EMF is necessary to induce waking and sleep EEG changes. Pulse-modulated EMF exposure may provide a new, non-invasive method for modifying brain function for experimental, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2001 May;25(3):235-60.
A detailed ethological analysis of the mouse open field test: effects of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and an extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field.
Choleris E, Thomas AW, Kavaliers M, Prato FS.
Room 9222D, Department of Psychology, Social Science Center, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2. firstname.lastname@example.org
The open field test (OFT) is a widely used procedure for examining the behavioral effects of drugs and anxiety. Detailed ethological assessments of animal behavior are lacking. Here we present a detailed ethological assessment of the effects of acute treatment with the benzodiazepines, diazepam (DZ, 1.5mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg), as well as exposure to a non-pharmacological agent, a specific pulsed extremely low frequency magnetic field (MAG) on open field behavior. We examined the duration, frequency and time course of various behaviors (i.e. exploration, walk, rear, stretch attend, return, groom, sit, spin turn, jump and sleep) exhibited by male mice in different regions of a novel open field. Both DZ and CDP consistently reduced the typical anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and wall-following (thigmotaxis), along with that of an additional new measure: ‘returns’, without producing any overall effects on total locomotion. The drugs also differed in their effects. CDP elicited a shift in the locomotor pattern from a ‘high explore’ to a ‘high walk’, while DZ mainly elicited alterations in sit and groom. The MAG treatment was repeated twice with both exposures reducing horizontal and vertical (rearing) activity and increasing grooming and spin turns. However, the anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and return were marginally reduced by only the first exposure. We conclude that a detailed ethological analysis of the OFT allows not only the detection of specific effects of drugs and non-pharmacological agents (i.e. pulsed magnetic field) on anxiety-like behaviors, but also permits the examination of non-specific effects, in particular those on general activity.
Clin Neurophysiol. 2000 Nov;111(11):1936-41.
Nocturnal magnetic field exposure: gender-specific effects on heart rate variability and sleep.
Graham C, Sastre A, Cook MR, Gerkovich MM.
Midwest Research Institute, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To determine if controlled exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields alters heart rate variability (HRV) and polysomnographic endpoints in healthy men (n=22) and women (n=24), 40-60 years of age.
METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was used. Study endpoints collected during all-night exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields at an occupational intensity (resultant flux density=28.3 microTesla, microT) were compared to similar endpoints obtained under equivalent, counterbalanced, no-exposure (< or =0.2 microT) control conditions.
RESULTS: Older men, but not women, exposed to the magnetic fields showed power reductions in the LF band of the HRV frequency spectrum, which is associated with sympathetically-mediated blood pressure and thermoregulatory control (P<0.04). Older women, but not men, exposed to the fields showed a pattern of disrupted sleep, with reductions in the duration of REM sleep (P=0.03), and strong trends for reductions in sleep efficiency (P=0.06) and total sleep time (P=0.06).
CONCLUSIONS: The gender-specific effects seen here with older volunteers replicate the results of previous exposure studies with younger men and women.
|Neuroreport. 2000 Oct 20;11(15):3321-5.|
Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagneticf field during waking affects human sleep EEG.
Huber R, Graf T, Cote KA, Wittmann L, Gallmann E, Matter D, Schuderer J, Kuster N, Borbely AA, Achermann P.
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
The aim of the study was to investigate whether the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by digital radiotelephone handsets affects brain physiology. Healthy, young male subjects were exposed for 30 min to EMF (900 MHz; spatial peak specific absorption rate 1 W/kg) during the waking period preceding sleep. Compared with the control condition with sham exposure, spectral power of the EEG in non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased. The maximum rise occurred in the 9.75-11.25 Hz and 12.5-13.25 Hz band during the initial part of sleep. These changes correspond to those obtained in a previous study where EMF was intermittently applied during sleep. Unilateral exposure induced no hemispheric asymmetry of EEG power. The present results demonstrate that exposure during waking modifies the EEG during subsequent sleep. Thus the changes of brain function induced by pulsed high-frequency EMF outlast the exposure period.
|Neurosci Lett. 1999 Nov 19;275(3):207-10.|
Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram.
Borbely AA, Huber R, Graf T, Fuchs B, Gallmann E, Achermann P.
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
To investigate whether the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by digital radiotelephone handsets affects the brain, healthy, young subjects were exposed during an entire night-time sleep episode to an intermittent radiation schedule (900 MHz; maximum specific absorption rate 1 W/kg) consisting of alternating 15-min on-15-min off intervals. Compared with a control night with sham exposure, the amount of waking after sleep onset was reduced from 18 to 12 min. Spectral power of the electroencephalogram in non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased. The maximum rise occurred in the 10-11 Hz and 13.5-14 Hz bands during the initial part of sleep and then subsided. The results demonstrate that pulsed high-frequency EMF in the range of radiotelephones may promote sleep and modify the sleep EEG.
Human sleep under the influence of pulsed radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: a polysomnographic study using standardized conditions.
Wagner P, Roschke J, Mann K, Hiller W, Frank C.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz, Germany.email@example.com
To investigate the influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of cellular phone GSM signals on human sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern, all-night polysomnographies of 24 healthy male subjects were recorded, both with and without exposure to a circular polarized EMF (900 MHz, pulsed with a frequency of 217 Hz, pulse width 577 micros, power flux density 0.2 W/m2. Suppression of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as well as a sleep-inducing effect under field exposure did not reach statistical significance, so that previous results indicating alterations of these sleep parameters could not be replicated. Spectral power analysis also did not reveal any alterations of the EEG rhythms during EMF exposure. The failure to confirm our previous results might be due to dose-dependent effects of the EMF on the human sleep profile.
Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human sleep.
Mann K, Roschke J.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz, Germany.
In the present study we investigated the influence of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields of digital mobile radio telephones on sleep in healthy humans. Besides a hypnotic effect with shortening of sleep onset latency, a REM suppressive effect with reduction of duration and percentage of REM sleep was found. Moreover, spectral analysis revealed qualitative alterations of the EEG signal during REM sleep with an increased spectral power density. Knowing the relevance of REM sleep for adequate information processing in the brain, especially concerning mnestic functions and learning processes, the results emphasize the necessity to carry out further investigations on the interaction of this type of electromagnetic fields and the human organism.
|Neuropsychobiology. 1998 Nov;38(4):251-6.|
No effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on heart rate variability during human sleep.
Mann K, Roschke J, Connemann B, Beta H.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz, Germany.
The influence of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields emitted by digital mobile radio telephones on heart rate during sleep in healthy humans was investigated. Beside mean RR interval and total variability of RR intervals based on calculation of the standard deviation, heart rate variability was assessed in the frequency domain by spectral power analysis providing information about the balance between the two branches of the autonomic nervous system. For most parameters, significant differences between different sleep stages were found. In particular, slow-wave sleep was characterized by a low ratio of low- and high-frequency components, indicating a predominance of the parasympathetic over the sympathetic tone. In contrast, during REM sleep the autonomic balance was shifted in favor of the sympathetic activity. For all heart rate parameters, no significant effects were detected under exposure to the field compared to placebo condition. Thus, under the given experimental conditions, autonomic control of heart rate was not affected by weak-pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields.
Nocturnal exposure to intermittent 60 Hz magnetic fields alters human cardiac rhythm.
Sastre A, Cook MR, Graham C.
Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA. Asastre@mriresearch.org
Heart rate variability (HRV) results from the action of neuronal and cardiovascular reflexes, including those involved in the control of temperature, blood pressure and respiration. Quantitative spectral analyses of alterations in HRV using the digital Fourier transform technique provide useful in vivo indicators of beat-to-beat variations in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity. Recently, decreases in HRV have been shown to have clinical value in the prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. While previous studies have shown that exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields alters mean heart rate, the studies reported here are the first to examine effects of exposure on HRV. This report describes three double-blind studies involving a total of 77 human volunteers. In the first two studies, nocturnal exposure to an intermittent, circularly polarized magnetic field at 200 mG significantly reduced HRV in the spectral band associated with temperature and blood pressure control mechanisms (P = 0.035 and P = 0.02), and increased variability in the spectral band associated with respiration (P = 0.06 and P = 0.008). In the third study the field was presented continuously rather than intermittently, and no significant effects on HRV were found. The changes seen as a function of intermittent magnetic field exposure are similar, but not identical, to those reported as predictive of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the changes resemble those reported during stage II sleep. Further research will be required to determine whether exposure to magnetic fields alters stage II sleep and to define further the anatomical structures where field-related interactions between magnetic fields and human physiology should be sought.
Ann Biomed Eng. 1996 May-Jun;24(3):424-9.
Electroencephalographic changes following low energy emission therapy.
Lebet JP, Barbault A, Rossel C, Tomic Z, Reite M, Higgs L, Dafni U, Amato D, Pasche B.
Symtonic SA., Renens, Switzerland.
Low energy emission therapy (LEET) is a novel approach to delivering low levels of amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields to the human brain. The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) effects of a 15-min LEET treatment were investigated in a double-find cross-over study to assess sleep induction. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were exposed to both active and inactive LEET treatment sessions, with a minimum interval of 1 week between the two sessions. Baseline EEGs were obtained, and 15-min posttreatment EEGs were recorded and analyzed according to the Loomis classification. A significant increase in the duration of stage B1 sleep (0.58 +/- 2.42 min [mean +/- SD], p = 0.046), decreased latency to the first 10 sec epoch of sleep (-1.23 +/- 5.32 min, p = 0.051) and decreased latency to sleep stage B2 (-1.21 +/- 5.25 min, p = 0.052) were observed after active treatment. Additionally, establishment of slow waves with progression from stages B to C was significantly more pronounced after active LEET treatment (p = 0.040). A combined analysis of these results with those of an identical study performed in Denver showed that LEET had a significant effect on afternoon sleep induction and maintenance with shorter sleep latencies (decreased latency to the first 10 sec epoch of sleep; -1.00 +/- 5.51 min, p = 0.033; decreased latency to sleep stage B2; -1.49 +/- 5.40 min, p = 0.003), an increased duration of stage B2 (0.67 +/- 2.50 min, p = 0.003), an increase in the total duration of sleep (0.69 +/- 4.21 min, p = 0.049), and a more prominent establishment of slow waves with progression to a deeper sleep stage (p = 0.006). It is concluded that the intermittent 42.7 HZ amplitude modulation of 27.12-MHz electromagnetic fields results in EEG changes consistent with shorter sleep latencies, longer sleep duration, and deeper sleep in healthy subjects.
Sleep. 1996 May;19(4):327-36.
Effects of low energy emission therapy in chronic psychophysiological insomnia.
Pasche B, Erman M, Hayduk R, Mitler MM, Reite M, Higgs L, Kuster N, Rossel C, Dafni U, Amato D, Barbault A, Lebet JP.
Symtonic USA, Inc., New York, New York 10162, USA.
The treatment of chronic psychophysiological insomnia presents a challenge that has not been met using currently available pharmacotherapy. Low energy emission therapy (LEET) has been developed as a potential alternative therapy for this disorder. LEET consists of amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields delivered intrabuccally by means of an electrically conducting mouthpiece in direct contact with the oral mucosa. The effect of LEET on chronic psychophysiological insomnia was assessed with polysomnography (PSG) and sleep rating forms on a total of 106 patients at two different centers. Active or inactive LEET was administered for 20 minutes in late afternoon three times a week for a total of 12 treatments. Primary efficacy endpoints evaluating the results were changes from baseline in PSG-assessed total sleep time (TST) and sleep latency (SL). Secondary endpoints were changes in sleep efficiency (SE), sleep stages, and reports by the subjects of SL and TST. There was a significant increase in TST as assessed by PSG between baseline and post-treatment values for the active treatment group (76.0 +/- 11.1 minutes, p = 0.0001). The increase for the inactive treatment group was not statistically significant. The TST improvement was significantly greater for the active group when compared to the inactive group (adjusted for baseline TST; p = 0.020. R1 = 0.20). There was a significant decrease in SL as assessed by PSG between baseline and post-treatment values for the active treatment group (-21.6 +/- 5.9 minutes, p = 0.0006), whereas the decrease noted for the inactive treatment group was not statistically significant. The difference in SL decrease between the two treatment groups was marginally significant (adjusted for baseline SL and center, p = 0.068, R2 = 0.60). The number of sleep cycles per night increased by 30% after active treatment (p = 0.0001) but was unchanged following inactive treatment. Subjects did not experience rebound insomnia, and there were no significant side effects. The data presented in this report indicate that LEET administered for 20 minutes three times a week increased TST and reduced SL in chronic psychophysiological insomnia. LEET is safe and well tolerated and it effectively improved the sleep of chronic insomniacs given 12 treatments over a 4-week period by increasing the number of sleep cycles without altering the percentage of the various sleep stages during the night. The therapeutic action of LEET differs from that of currently available drug therapies in that the sleep pattern noted in insomniacs following LEET treatment more closely resembles nocturnal physiological sleep. This novel treatment may offer an attractive alternative therapy for chronic insomnia.