Acute Toxic Stress

Lasers Med Sci.  2012 Jul 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of laser and LED radiation on mitochondrial respiration in experimental endotoxic shock.

Buravlev EA, Zhidkova TV, Vladimirov YA, Osipov AN.


Department of Medical Biophysics, NI Pirogov Russian State Medical University, 1 Ostrovityanov str., 117997, Moscow, Russia,


Effects of low-level laser therapy (442 and 532 nm) and LED radiation (650 nm) on mitochondrial respiration in experimental endotoxic shock have been studied. A model of experimental endotoxic shock in rats was obtained by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide B. It was found that low-level laser therapy and LED radiation dramatically affected the rate of mitochondrial respiration in third and fourth states both in LPS-treated animals and in control experiments. The maximal increase of the mitochondrial respiration rate (of about 40 %) in LPS-treated animals was observed when blue laser was applied at the dose of 6 J/cm(2). Measurements of inner mitochondrial membrane surface potential with fluorescence probe JC-1 in LPS-treated rats showed in approximately 10 % decrease of potential in LPS-treated animals compared to control.

Photomed Laser Surg.  2011 Apr;29(4):233-7. Epub 2010 Dec 23.

Effect of photobiomodulation on vinblastine-poisoned murine HERS cells.

Hodgson BD, Pyszka B, Henry MM, Buchmann E, Whelan HT.


Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.



The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of near-infrared (NIR) photobiomodulation on the proliferation and glutathione levels in murine Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells after poisoning with vinblastine.


Photobiomodulation has been shown to improve wound healing in a number of animal models. There have been no studies on the effect of photobiomodulation on cancer-related chemotherapy injury to the cells that initiate tooth root growth.


Control groups consisted of murine HERS cells without vinblastine (VB-) and cells with vinblastine at 10, 20, and 30?ng/mL (VB10, VB20, and VB30). Experimental groups consisted of these same groups with light therapy (VB-L, VB10L, VB20L, and VB30L). The cells were exposed to vinblastine for 1?h. Photobiomodulation consisted of a 75-cm(2) gallium-aluminum-arsenide light-emitting diode (LED) array at an energy density of 12.8?J/cm(2), delivered with 50?mW/cm(2) power over 256?s.


Vinblastine alone significantly decreased HERS cell proliferation and glutathione levels at all concentrations (VB10 [-55%, p?<?1.0?×?10(-8)]; VB20 [-72%, p?<?1.0?×?10(-9)]; VB30 [-80%, p?<?1.0?×?10(-10)]; and VB10 [-36%, p?<?0.0001]; VB20 [-49%, p?<?1.0?×?10(-6)]; VB30 [-53%, p?<?1.0?×?10(-7)] respectively). Photobiomodulation significantly increased cell proliferation at all levels of vinblastine exposure (VB10L [+50%, p?<?0.0001]; VB20L [+45%, p?<?0.05]; VB30 [+39%, p?<?0.05]) but not of the control (+22%, p?=?0.063). The photobiomodulation significantly increased glutathione production in all concentrations of vinblastine except 20?ng/mL (VB10L [+39%, p?=?0.007]; VB20L [+19%, p?=?0.087]; VB30 [+14%, p?=?0.025]) and the control (+12%, p?=?0.13).


Photobiomodulation demonstrated an improvement in proliferation and glutathione levels in vinblastine-poisoned murine HERS cells.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2011 Apr 1. [Epub ahead of print]

Low-Level Laser Therapy on the Viability of Skin Flap in Rats Subjected to Deleterious Effect of Nicotine.

das Neves LM, Marcolino AM, Prado RP, De Souza Ribeiro T, Pinfildi CE, Thomazini JA.

1 Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor System, University of São Paulo-FMRP/USP , Ribeirão Preto, Brazil .


Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 830-nm laser in blocking the action of nicotine on the viability of skin flap. Background data: The authors have analyzed the deleterious effect of cigarette smoke or nicotine on the skin flap alone with evidence of increased skin necrosis in the flap. Materials and methods: Twenty-four Wistar-albino rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: Group 1 (control), subjected to a surgical technique to obtain a flap for cranial base, laser irradiation simulation, and a subcutaneous injection of saline; Group 2, similar to Group 1, with subcutaneous injection of nicotine (2?mg/kg/day) for a period of 1 week before and 1 week after surgery; and Group 3, similar to Group 2, with skin flaps subjected to a ? 830-nm laser irradiation. The laser parameters used were: power 30 mW, beam area 0.07cm(2), irradiance 429 mW/cm(2), irradiation time 84?sec, total energy 2.52?J, and energy density 36J/cm(2). The laser was used immediately after surgery and for 4 consecutive days, in one point at 2.5?cm of the flap cranial base. The areas of necrosis were examined by two macroscopic analyses: paper template and Mini-Mop(®). The pervious blood vessels were also counted.

Results: The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and post-test contrast orthogonal method (multiple comparisons), showing that the laser decreased the area of necrosis in flaps subjected to nicotine, and consequently, increased the number of blood vessels (p?<?0.05).

Conclusions: The laser proved to be an effective way to decrease the area of necrosis in rats subjected to nicotine, making them similar to the control group.

Braz Oral Res.  2010 Dec;24(4):460-6.

In vitro effect of low intensity laser on the cytotoxicity produced by substances released by bleaching gel.

Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brazil.


This in vitro study aimed to analyze the effect of different parameters of phototherapy with low intensity laser on the viability of human dental pulp fibroblasts under the effect of substances released by bleaching gel. Cells were seeded into 96 wells plates (1 x 10³ cells/well) and placed in contact with culture medium conditioned by a 35 % hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel for 40 minutes, simulating the clinical condition of the in-office bleaching treatment. Cells cultured in ideal growth conditions served as positive control group (PC), and the cells grown in conditioned medium and non-irradiated served as negative control group (NC). Cells grown in conditioned medium were submitted to a single irradiation with a diode laser (40 mW, 0.04 cm²) emitting at visible red (660 nm; RL) or near infrared (780 nm; NIR) using punctual technique, in contact mode and energy densities of 4, 6 or 10 J/cm². The cell viability was analyzed through the MTT reduction assay immediately and 24 hours after the irradiation. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey’s test (p ? 0.05). The cell viability increased significantly in 24 hours within each group. The PC presented cell viability significantly higher than NC in both experimental times. Only the NIR/10 J/cm² group presented cell viability similar to that of PC in 24 hours. The phototherapy with low intensity laser in defined parameters is able to compensate the cytotoxic effects of substances released by 35 % hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult.  2010 Jul-Aug;(4):20-2.

The use of magnetic-laser therapy in the combined treatment of osteoarthrosis in workers exposed to inorganic fluoride compounds.

[Article in Russian]

Fedorov AA, Riabko EV, Gromov AS.


The present study included 67 patients who had been exposed to the impact of inorganic fluoride compounds. It demonstrated beneficial effect of magnetolaser therapy in combination with whole body iodine-bromide-sodium chlorine baths, physical exercises, and massage on clinical manifestations of the primary disease and concomitant pathologies. Simultaneously, metabolic processes in the articular cartilage and bone tissue were normalized, lipid peroxidation was improved and optimization of antioxidative protection achieved. These changes are indicative of high therapeutic efficiency of the combined treatment employed in this study and its favourable influence on the quality of life of the patients.

Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2010 Jun;22(6):367-370.

Effects of low-level laser irradiation on rat mestenteric microcirculatory disturbance during early stage of endotoxemia.

[Article in Chinese]

Zhao SF, Feng LJ, He HY, Zhao XM, Sun J, Shen H.

Emergency Department, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.


OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of low-level laser irradiation on mesenteric microcirculation of rats in vivo in the early stage of endotoxemia (ETM).

METHODS: The experimental model of ETM was reproduced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sixty healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups used random number table: control group, LPS group and low-level laser irradiation group, each group included 20 rats which were subdivided into four temporal subgroups (1, 2, 4, 6 hours, respectively). In low-level laser irradiation group, the rats were irradiated by type SLT semiconductor laser (650 nm, 5 mW) on unilateral femoral artery and vein, and blood vessel of the ear concurrently for 30 minutes. The interference course was vertical irradiation taken at 30 minutes after the injection of LPS. At 1, 2, 4, 6 hours after the injection of LPS, changes in mesenteric microcirculation and microcirculatory blood flow were recorded with the laser Doppler flowmeter, the velocity of red blood cells in venules was observed, and the number of open capillaries and adherent leukocytes were recorded.

RESULTS: The blood flow velocity (mm/s) of the mesenteric microcirculation in LPS group was accelerated at 1 hour and 2 hours after LPS injection (1 hour: 0.190+/-0.007 vs. 0.174+/-0.009, 2 hours: 0.200+/-0.010 vs. 0.172+/-0.015, both P<0.05, respectively), but decelerated at 6 hours (0.116+/-0.015 vs. 0.164+/-0.011, P<0.05 ). The blood flow volume in the mesenteric vessels and the number of open capillaries did not show any significant change at that time. Significant increase in number of adherent leukocytes was observed at 2, 4, 6 hours after injury (2 hours: 2.60+/-1.14 vs. 0.40+/-0.55, 4 hours: 5.40+/-0.89 vs. 0.40+/-0.55, 6 hours : 5.40+/-1.52 vs. 0.60+/-0.90, all P<0.05, respectively). The state of blood flow in the microcirculation became abnormal. After irradiated with laser in low dose, the blood flow velocity was smooth and stable (mm/s, 1 hour: 0.174+/-0.011, 2 hours: 0.180+/-0.023, 4 hours: 0.168+/-0.013, 6 hours: 0.162+/-0.023), and the number of adherent leukocytes was reduced significantly at 4 hours and 6 hours than that in LPS group (4 hours: 2.00+/-0.71 vs. 5.40+/-0.89, 6 hours : 2.60+/-1.52 vs. 5.40+/-1.52, both P<0.05) and the microcirculatory flow state was improved obviously.

CONCLUSION: Low-level laser irradiation may ameliorate the local mesenteric microcirculation, alleviate the microcirculatory disorder in early stage of ETM.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2009 Jun 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Myonecrosis Induced by Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom.

Barbosa AM, Villaverde AB, Sousa LG, Munin E, Fernandez CM, Cogo JC, Zamuner SR.

1 Laboratory of Inflammation, Institute of Research and Development, University of Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP) , São Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) alone or in combination with antivenom (AV) to reduce myonecrosis induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.

Background Data: Myonecrosis is the most pronounced local effect caused by B. jararacussu venom. AV therapy and other first-aid treatments do not reverse these local effects.

Material and Methods: Male Swiss mice were used. Myonecrosis was induced by injection of 0.6 mg/kg of B. jararacussu venom in the right gastrocnemius muscle and was evaluated at 3 or 24 h after venom injection. The site of venom administration was irradiated for 29 s with a low power semiconductor laser (685 nm) at a dose of 4.2 J/cm(2). Intravenous AV therapy (0.5 mL dose) was administered at different times: 30 min before venom injection or 0, 1, or 3 h afterward. Both AV therapy and LLLT treatments were duplicated in mice groups killed at 3 or 24 h.

Results: B. jararacussu venom caused a significant myonecrotic effect 3 and 24 h after venom injection. LLLT significantly reduced myonecrosis by 83.5% at 24 h (p < 0.05) but not at 3 h, and AV therapy alone was ineffective for reducing myonecrosis at 3 and 24 h.

Conclusion: Only LLLT significantly reduced myonecrosis of the envenomed muscle, suggesting that LLLT is a potentially therapeutic approach for treating the local effects of B. jararacussu venom.

Toxicon. 2008 Mar 10 [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of low-level laser therapy in the inflammatory response induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.

Barbosa AM, Villaverde AB, Guimarães-Souza L, Ribeiro W, Cogo JC, Zamuner SR.

Laboratory of Inflammation, Institute of Research and Development, University of Vale do Paraíba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, Urbanova, CEP 12244-000, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.

This article reports the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the edema formation and leukocyte influx caused by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom as an alternative treatment for Bothrops snakebites. The inflammatory reaction was induced by injection of 0.6mg/kg of B. jararacussu venom, in gastrocnemius muscle. Cell influx and edema were evaluated at 3 or 24h after venom injection. Mice were irradiated at the site of injury by a low-level laser (685nm) with a dose of 4.2J/cm(2). A therapy that combines LLLT and antivenom was also studied. B. jararacussu venom caused a significant edema formation 3 and 24h after its injection, and a prominent leukocyte infiltrate composed predominantly of neutrophils at 24h after venom inoculation. LLLT significantly reduced edema formation by 53% and 64% at 3 and 24h, respectively, and resulted in a reduction of neutrophils accumulation (P<0.05). The combined therapy showed to be more efficient than each therapy acting separately. In conclusion, LLLT significantly reduced the edema and leukocyte influx into the envenomed muscle, suggesting that LLLT should be considered as a potentially therapeutic approach for the treatment of the local effects of Bothrops species.

Biofizika. 2007 Jan-Feb;52(1):137-40.

Protective effect of low-power laser radiation in acute toxic stress.


[Article in Russian]

Novoselova EG, Glushkova OV, Khrenov MO, Chernenkov DA, Lunin SM, Novoselova TV, Chudnovski? VM, Iusupov VI, Fesenko EE.


The effect of preliminary short-term irradiation with He-Ne laser light (632.8 nm, 0.2 mW/cm2) of the thymus zone projection of male NMRI mice subjected to acute toxic stress on the responses of immune cells was studied. Stress was modeled by lipopolysaccharide injection, 250 mg/100 g of body weight, which induced a significant increase in the production of several macrophage cytokines, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha. A single irradiation with laser light did not provoke considerable variations in NO production in cells but induced an enhancement in the production of heat shock proteins Hsp25, Hsp70, and Hsp90. Nevertheless, when irradiation with red laser light was applied prior to toxic stress, considerable normalization of production of nearly all cytokines studied and nitric oxide was observed. Moreover, the normalization of production of heat shock proteins has been shown in these conditions. Thus, preliminary exposure of a small area of animal skin surface provoked a significant lowering in the toxic effect of lipopolysaccharide.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2006 Apr;24(2):121-8.

Clinical and experimental applications of NIR-LED photobiomodulation.

Desmet KD, Paz DA, Corry JJ, Eells JT, Wong-Riley MT, Henry MM, Buchmann EV, Connelly MP, Dovi JV, Liang HL, Henshel DS, Yeager RL, Millsap DS, Lim J, Gould LJ, Das R, Jett M, Hodgson BD, Margolis D, Whelan HT.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 53226, USA.

This review presents current research on the use of far-red to near-infrared (NIR) light treatment in various in vitro and in vivo models. Low-intensity light therapy, commonly referred to as “photobiomodulation,” uses light in the far-red to near-infrared region of the spectrum (630-1000 nm) and modulates numerous cellular functions. Positive effects of NIR-light-emitting diode (LED) light treatment include acceleration of wound healing, improved recovery from ischemic injury of the heart, and attenuated degeneration of injured optic nerves by improving mitochondrial energy metabolism and production. Various in vitro and in vivo models of mitochondrial dysfunction were treated with a variety of wavelengths of NIR-LED light. These studies were performed to determine the effect of NIR-LED light treatment on physiologic and pathologic processes. NIRLED light treatment stimulates the photoacceptor cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in increased energy metabolism and production. NIR-LED light treatment accelerates wound healing in ischemic rat and murine diabetic wound healing models, attenuates the retinotoxic effects of methanol-derived formic acid in rat models, and attenuates the developmental toxicity of dioxin in chicken embryos. Furthermore, NIR-LED light treatment prevents the development of oral mucositis in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients. The experimental results demonstrate that NIR-LED light treatment stimulates mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in vitro, and accelerates cell and tissue repair in vivo. NIR-LED light represents a novel, noninvasive, therapeutic intervention for the treatment of numerous diseases linked to mitochondrial dysfunction.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar 18;100(6):3439-44. Epub 2003 Mar 7.

Therapeutic photobiomodulation for methanol-induced retinal toxicity.

Eells JT, Henry MM, Summerfelt P, Wong-Riley MT, Buchmann EV, Kane M, Whelan NT, Whelan HT.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Methanol intoxication produces toxic injury to the retina and optic nerve, resulting in blindness. The toxic metabolite in methanol intoxication is formic acid, a mitochondrial toxin known to inhibit the essential mitochondrial enzyme, cytochrome oxidase. Photobiomodulation by red to near-IR radiation has been demonstrated to enhance mitochondrial activity and promote cell survival in vitro by stimulation of cytochrome oxidase activity. The present studies were undertaken to test the hypothesis that exposure to monochromatic red radiation from light-emitting diode (LED) arrays would protect the retina against the toxic actions of methanol-derived formic acid in a rodent model of methanol toxicity. Using the electroretinogram as a sensitive indicator of retinal function, we demonstrated that three brief (2 min, 24 s) 670-nm LED treatments (4 J/cm(2)), delivered at 5, 25, and 50 h of methanol intoxication, attenuated the retinotoxic effects of methanol-derived formate. Our studies document a significant recovery of rod- and cone-mediated function in LED-treated, methanol-intoxicated rats. We further show that LED treatment protected the retina from the histopathologic changes induced by methanol-derived formate. These findings provide a link between the actions of monochromatic red to near-IR light on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in vitro and retinoprotection in vivo. They also suggest that photobiomodulation may enhance recovery from retinal injury and other ocular diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction is postulated to play a role.


Dourado DM, Cruz-Höfling MA.

The venom of the bothrops moojeni snake was injected into the gastroscnemius of mice to mimic the effect of a snakebite. Traditional therapies for this snakebite have proven less effective. Three groups were tested: A=saline, B=venom and C=venom+ laser. Two sessions of HeNe laser at 4 J/cm2 during 1 m 32 s were administered and the animals were sacrificed at 24 h, 3 d and 7 d, respectively. The analysis showed myonecrosis with inflammation and an extensive area of degenerated fibres. In the laser group there was, by day 3, an incipient number of regenerating fibres. Laser accelerated the phagocytosis of fibre remnants and recovery of the tissue, decreasing the oedema and increasing regeneration.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 Mar-Apr;(2):28-31.


The effect of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood on the brain bioelectrical activity in patients in the postcomatose period.

[Article in Russian]

Idrisova LT, Enikeev DA, Vasil’eva TV.

The article presents clinical data on therapeutic effects of intravenous laser blood irradiation (BI) in severe alcohol intoxication complicated by alcohol coma. BI effectiveness was assessed by EEG changes within 3 postcomatose days. Changes in brain biopotentials in various postcomatose periods were unidirectional. Positive results were achieved after low-intensity laser radiation.

Klin Khir. 1998;(11):21-3.


Intensive therapy in burns and carbon monoxide poisoning.

[Article in Russian]
Grigor’eva TG, Balenko AA.

While treatment conduction of 38 patients with severe burns and poisoning with carbonic oxide in complex of antishock measures there was applied a nondirect electrochemical oxidation of blood and internal laser irradiation of blood. There was used He-Nd laser. The mortality lowering by 3.3 times in comparison with 40 patients, in whom the traditional intensive therapy was applied, was noted.