Gynecology – Urology

Arch Gynecol Obstet.  2012 Oct;286(4):947-52. doi: 10.1007/s00404-012-2380-9. Epub 2012 May 31.

Skin adhesive low-level light therapy for dysmenorrhoea: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial.

Shin YI, Kim NG, Park KJ, Kim DW, Hong GY, Shin BC.


Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea.



The cause of dysmenorrhoea is an abnormal function of smooth muscles in the uterus due to long-term deficient blood supply into smooth muscle tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of skin adhesive low-level light therapy (LLLT) in participants with dysmenorrhoea.


Thirty-one women were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial. Twenty-one women were treated with active LLLT and ten women were treated with placebo one. The therapy was performed in a laboratory room for 20 min a day over a period of 5 days prior to the expected onset of menstruation. The outcome was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS) for each participant’s dysmenorrhoeal pain severity. VAS of each subject was measured every month for 6 months.


In the active LLLT group, 16 women reported successful results during their first menstrual cycle just after active LLLT and 5 women had successful results from the second menstrual cycle after active LLLT. The pain reduction rate was 83 % in the active LLLT group, whereas there was only a slight and temporary reduction in pain in the placebo LLLT group. Changes of VAS within 6 months of LLLT showed statistical significance (p = 0.001) over placebo control.


Our study suggests that skin adhesive LLLT on acupuncture points might be an effective, simple and safe non-pharmacological treatment for dysmenorrhoea
BMC. Microbiol. 2012 Aug 15;12(1):176. [Epub ahead of print]

Inhibitory effects of 405 nm irradiation on Chlamydia trachomatis growth and characterization of the ensuing inflammatory response in HeLa cells.

Wasson CJ, Zourelias JL, Aardsma NA, Eells JT, Ganger MT, Schober JM, Skwor TA.




Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacterium that resides in the conjunctival and reproductive tract mucosae and is responsible for an array of acute and chronic diseases. A percentage of these infections persist even after use of antibiotics, suggesting the need for alternative treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated anti-bacterial effects using different wavelengths of visible light at varying energy densities, though only against extracellular bacteria. We investigated the effects of visible light (405 and 670 nm) irradiation via light emitting diode (LEDs) on chlamydial growth in end cervical epithelial cells, HeLa, during active and penicillin-induced persistent infections. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of this photo treatment on the ensuing secretion of IL-6 and CCL2, two pro-inflammatory cytokines that have previously been identified as immunopathologic components associated with trichiasis in vivo.


C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells were treated with 405 or 670 nm irradiation at varying energy densities (0 — 20 J/cm2). Bacterial growth was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analyzing the 16S: GAPDH ratio, while cell-free supernatants were examined for IL-6 and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2) production. Our results demonstrated a significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect on chlamydial growth during both active and persistent infections following 405 nm irradiation. Diminished bacterial load corresponded to lower IL-6 concentrations, but was not related to CCL2 levels. In vitro modeling of a persistent C. trachomatis infection induced by penicillin demonstrated significantly elevated IL-6 levels compared to C. trachomatis infection alone, though 405 nm irradiation had a minimal effect on this production.


Together these results identify novel inhibitory effects of 405 nm violet light on the bacterial growth of intracellular bacterium C. trachomatis in vitro, which also coincides with diminished levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2009 Jan-Feb;(1):25-8.


Application of low-intensity laser radiation and endotoxin-binding preparations to the treatment of female infertility


[Article in Russian]

Enukidze GG.

A total of 38 women of reproductive age (from 20 to 45 years) with chronic inflammatory gynecological diseases including 7 with primary and 9 with secondary infertility were examined by standard clinical, instrumental, and laboratory methods. In addition, variations of such important characteristics as serum endotoxin level and activity of antiendotoxin immunity were measured. The study has demonstrated participation of chronic aggression of endotoxins (of intestinal origin) in pathogenesis of the disorders of interest. Inclusion of the “antiendotoxic component” in the combined therapy allowed the efficacy of the treatment of chronic inflammation and female infertility to be greatly enhanced. It suggests the important (if not decisive) role of bacterial lipopolysacchardides in the pathogenetic mechanism underlying the problems considered in this study.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2008 Jul-Aug;(4):24-6.

Low-intensity laser irradiation in the combined treatment of depressive disorders in patients with chronic salpingo-oophoritis

[Article in Russian]

Mamedov FM.

This study was designed to evaluate the possibility to use low-intensity laser radiation in combined therapy of somatogenic depressions in patients having gynecological problems, such as inflammatory disease of uterine appendages. It was shown that the combined treatment including administration of antidepressants significantly accelerated the development of beneficial changes and stabilized depressive manifestations. Inclusion of low-intensity laser irradiation in the combined therapy further improved its positive effect. Nevertheless, the complete recovery could not be achieved in the absence of specific antidepressant treatment despite the alleviation of depressive symptoms.

Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2007 May;62(5):348-51; quiz 353-4

Urethral pain syndrome and its management.

Kaur H, Arunkalaivanan AS.

North Staffordshire University Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom.

Urethral pain syndrome is occurrence of persistent or recurrent episodic urethral pain usually on voiding with daytime frequency and nocturia, in the absence of proven infection or other obvious pathology. This is a condition of uncertain etiology. The objective of this article is to review etiology, diagnosis, and management of urethral pain syndrome. Since there is paucity of information on randomized trials, search of published literature has been made using keywords such as “urethral pain syndrome”, “painful bladder syndrome”, “urethral stenosis”, and “lower urinary tract symptoms”. Urethral pain syndrome is a disease of ambiguous etiology. Diagnosis is mainly based upon symptoms, and investigations are aimed to exclude other conditions affecting lower urinary tract. Various modalities of treatment including antibiotics, alpha-blockers, acupuncture, and laser therapy have been proved successful. Psychological support is very important in this group of women. Management requires multidisciplinary approach, and treatment at its best is by trial and error. TARGET AUDIENCE: Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After completion of this article, the reader should be able to explain that the urethral pain syndrome (UPS) has specific signs and symptoms without specific responses to a variety of treatment options and recall that treatment may require a multidisciplinary approach and a lot of sensitivity by the physician.

Efficacy of low-intensity laser radiation and antibacterial therapy in the treatment of chronic prostatitis in the presence of sexually transmitted infections

[Article in Russian]

Ne?mark AI, Khrianin AA, Safina ON, Ne?mark BA, Kondrat’eva IuS.

We studied 94 patients with chronic prostatitis (CP) in combination with urogenital chlamydiasis. The patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 32 patients with bacterial prostatitis and sexually transmitted infection (STI). They were treated with fromilid in a dose 500 mg twice a day. Group 2 (n = 27) received also low-intensity laser radiation (LILR) on the prostatic gland. Group 3 patients (n = 35) with abacterial prostatitis were given fromilid (500 mg twice a day). We studied prostatic hemodynamics with color doppler mapping. A specific feature of prostatic vascularisation in CP and STI versus healthy subjects is heterogeneous decline of vessels density in ischemic zones with parallel decrease in these vessels diameter. A peripheral prostatic zone in CP patients with STI was characterized by lower vascularisation than central one. This deteriorates the course of the disease. The results of the study show that adjuvant LILR in CP patients with STI raises efficacy of therapy by 11%. Investigation of prostate vascularisation and hemodynamics of its vessels in CP patients with STI using transrectal ultrasonography and dopplerography provide detailed information about prostatic structure allowing for lesion zones. This facilitates choice of an optimal complex treatment with application of LELR in peripheral inflammation of the prostate.

Urologiia. 2006 Jul-Aug;(4):54-7.

Using AELTIS-synchro-02 device in the therapy of chronic bacterial prostatitis

[Article in Russian]

Orlov VN, Kozboda AS, Kravchenko VV, Kalinina SA.

The treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis combined antibacterial drugs and physiotherapy (low-energy laser radiation, electrostimulation of the prostate). Treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis with medication and complex two-channel bio-synchronized electrolaser therapy with application of the unit AELTIS-synchro-02 raises efficacy of treatment with chronic bacterial prostatitis due to combined effect of antibacterial drugs and bacteriostatic and immunomodulating actions of the physical factors applied. These normalize microcirculation in the region of the prostatic gland, improve a draining function of the prostatic ducts, allows achievement of good results in 88.2% patients.

Urologiia. 2006 Jul-Aug;(4):49-54.

Use of Intramag devices with Intraterm and Last-02 attachments in complex therapy of chronic prostatitis

[Article in Russian]

Shaplygin LV, Begaev AI, V’iushina VV.

The examination of the patients exposed to physical factors (magnetotherapy, laser therapy and thermotherapy) has demonstrated that Intramag unit with attachments Intraterm and LAST-02 for local physiotherapy is effective in patients with chronic prostatitis and can be used in urological hospitals and outpatient clinics.

Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2006 Jul-Aug;(4):105-9.

Immunological and microbiological aspects of low intensity laser effect on the factors of local immunity of the reproductive tract in women with chlamydia infection

[Article in Russian]

Dolgushin II, Gizinger OA, Telesheva LF.

Assessment of immunological and microbiological efficacy of Chlamydia cervicitis management was made by a complex method with a low intensity laser. The total number of leukocytes, percentage of viable cells and the number of neutrophils were detected in cervical secrets. Functional status of neutrophils was studied by a content of lysosomes on the ground of spontaneous and induced by latex HCT-reducing capacity, phagocytic activity. A system of cytokines was studied by interleukine level (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-8) and IFN-gamma content in cervical mucus. Positive clinical effect of the local use of the low intensity laser for Chlamydia cervicitis treatment was accompanied by positive changes in immunological indices of cervical secret, normal concentration of cytokines in cervical secret, restoration of the number and functions of neutrophils. Local use of the low intensity laser contributed to decreased number of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms and their associations, and restored local flora.


G.I. Mavrov, G.M. Bondarenko, T.V. Gybenko

Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute for Dermatology &Venereology, Kharkov, Ukraine

The problem of managing chronic inflammatory diseases of genitals is rather urgent. It is connected with increase of serious complica­tions, tendency to recurrence, resistance to treatment. We studied 28 patients (11 males and 17 females). The age of patients was 19-48 (medium age was 31). On etiologically diagnosis the patients were distributed as follows: Chlamidia trachomatis was found in 21 cases, C.trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealiticum – in 5, ?. trachomatis and Candida albicans – in 2. Chronic urethritis, prostatitis, cervicitis, cervical erosion, vulvovaginitis, endometritis, and pelvic inflamma­tory disease were prevailed. Antimicrobials, immunomodulators, vitamins, and symptomatic drugs were prescribed in combination with LILI. The laser therapy was conducted by He-Ne laser with the capacity of 25 mW. Males received intravenous or intraurethral LILI, 5-7 procedures. Females received LILI by the following techniques -intravenously, intraurethraly, intracervically and intrauterinely, 5-7 procedures, intravaginally – 10 procedures. Patients which received laser therapy were marked by pronounced clinical improvements – pain was soothed, acute urethral syndrome was arrested, discharge from the genitals was decreased. Blood and urine parameters normalized. On data from our institution the percentage of recur­rence after treatment of patients with chronic complicated genitourinal pathology without use of laser therapy was 10-15%. In the case of application of LILI the near results had shown 100 % clinical and microbiological curability.


I.D. Shumova, A.E. Freyze, E.V. Rusakova, Medical Center of Laser Therapy, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

In purpose of determing the effectiveness of treating of sexually transmitted diseases with laser therapy, 135 patients’ treatment courses were analyzed the method of 3 stages treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases were conducted. The treatment consisted of 15-20 days. 112 patients have been treated (with chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases). The complete healing of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia have been registered by 10-15 day, 3 patients’ vaporization were conducted. High level of laser therapy in gynecological practice let to full inculcate in hospitals.

Alaska Med. 1999 Jan-Mar;41(1):13-5.


The effect of laser radiation on the metabolic processes of cellular membranes in pelvic inflammatory disease

Kattakhodjaeva MH, Rakhimova LS.

First Tashkent State Medical University, Department of Gynecology andObstetrics, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekestan.

The metabolic products of peroxide oxidation of cellular membrane lipids and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxidismutase in blood plasma was determined in 68 patients with acute pelvic inflammatory disease and exacerbation of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. The analyses were done before treatment, after routine antibiotic therapy, and after low energy laser radiation treatment. During acute inflammation and exacerbation of chronic inflammation, peroxide oxidation of cellular membrane lipids intensifies and antioxidant enzyme activity decreases. Helium-neon laser rays in addition to routine antibiotics appear to stabilize peroxide oxidation and normalize antioxidation enzyme activity more than antibiotics alone.

A comparison between laser therapy and drug therapy in the treatment of vaginitis

Passeniouk A M, Michailov V A.

30 women with non-specific vaginitis and vaginal candidiasis were treated with LLLT and topical chlorhexidine application daily for ten days. 20 women with the same condition were treated with metronidazole (10 g as course dose) and fluconozole (150 mg single dose) and vaginal application of metronidazole. The results suggest that local laser therapy is able to remove signs of vaginitis more efficiently than drug therapy. Repair of normal vaginal microflora was significantly faster in the laser group. There were no side effects in the laser group whereas there were women on drug therapy who reported side effects.

Urologiia. 2004 Mar-Apr;(2):20-2.

Combined therapy of interstitial cystitis using the “Aeltis-Synchro-02-Iarilo device

[Article in Russian]

Kalinina SN, Molchanov AV, Rutskaia NS.

Multiple modality therapy of interstitial cystitis (IC)–the disease characterized by nicturia, pelvic pains, imperative pollakiuria–is considered. As IC nature is not well known, its treatment remains empiric. Among the underlying causes, most probable are autoimmune, allergic, infectious, neurological, vascular. Therefore, the treatment should be multi-modality. Most usable now is combined chemotherapy. Perspective is also IC treatment with medicines in combination with physiotherapy (electromagnetolaser AELTIS-SYNCHRO-02-YARILO”). Endovesical electrophoresis can be also applied.

Urol Nefrol (Mosk). 1996 Sep-Oct;(5):10-4.


Magnetic-laser therapy inflammatory and posttraumatic lesions of the urinary system

[Article in Russian]

Loran OB, Kaprin AD, Gazimagomedov GA.

The authors discuss disputable problem of renal and ureteral tissue after trauma or inflammation. These cause irreversible morphological changes in the tissue. Poor results of the standard therapy urged the authors to try magnetic-laser therapy in urological clinic. The technique has been developed on experimental animal models. The resultant morphological characteristics of ureteral wall and parenchyma support the validity of magnetic-laser therapy in urological practice.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1996 Sep-Oct;(5):25-6

The effect of low-intensity infrared laser therapy on the endocrine functions of patients with climacteric disorders

[Article in Russian]

Kulikova NG, Illarionov VE, Orekhov KV.

The authors examined males and females aged 40-65 with menopausal disorders. Low-intensive infrared laser therapy produced a response both in males and females in menopause as evidenced by normalization of FSH, LH levels and elevation of sex steroid hormones.

Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1994;94(4):20-3.


Hormonal disorders in women with prosopalgia in osteochondrosis of the cervical spine with possible means of their correction

[Article in Russian]

Kushlinskii NE, Grechko VE, Ivanov NA, Klimenko II, Sineva NA, Vodop’ianov, NP, Khasan A.

Radioimmunoassay was employed to determine basal levels of LH, FSH, prolactin, total testosterone and 17 beta-estradiol in plasma from 52 pre- or postmenopausal women with prosopalgia consequent to cervical osteochondrosis. The measurements were made before and after laser treatment. Different from the control, basal levels of the hormones and the trends in their changes due to laser therapy depended on the patients’ age and the disease stage.