Hemostasis Effects

Rev Bras Fisioter.  2011 Jan-Feb;15(1):1-7. Epub 2011 Mar 18.

Inhibition of carrageenan-induced expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA by low level laser therapy in a rat paw edema model.

Silva MP, Bortone F, Silva MP, Araújo TR, Costa MS, Silva Júnior JA.


Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.



Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used clinically in order to treat inflammation, where tissue and plasma prekallikrein have crucial importance. Plasma prekallikrein (PPK) is synthesized by the hepatocytes and secreted into the bloodstream, where it participates in the surface-dependent activation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinin generation and inflammation. Tissue prekallikrein is associated with important disease states (including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegeneration) and has been utilized or proposed as clinically important biomarker or therapeutic target of interest.


To evaluate if LLLT modulates tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA expression in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.


Experimental groups were assigned as followed: A(1) (Control-saline), A(2) (Carrageenan-only), A(3) (laser 660 nm only) and A(4) (Carrageenan + laser 660 nm). Edema was measured by a plethysmometer. Subplantar tissue was collected for the quantification of prekallikreins mRNA by Real time-Polymerase Chain Reaction.


A significantly decrease in the edema was observed after laser irradiation. Expression of prekallikreins increased after carrageenan injection. Tissue and plasma prekallikrein mRNA expression significantly decreased after LLLT’s 660 nm wavelength.


These results suggest that expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins is modulated by LLLT, which can be used in clinical practice due to its anti-inflammatory effects.

Ter Arkh. 2010;82(3):36-8.

Changes in plasma hemostatic parameters under intravascular laser irradiation of blood in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

[Article in Russian]

Burduli NM, Pilieva NG.


AIM: To study the time course of changes in the activity of the protein C system and other hemostatic parameters under intravascular laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty patients aged 17 to 62 years (mean 39.5 +/- 8.4 years) with CAP were examined. A control group (n = 40) received conventional drug therapy; the study group (n = 100) had a course of ILIB in addition to conventional therapy.

RESULTS: Before treatment, the patients with CAP were observed to have a lower protein C system activity and the signs of hypercoagulation that were eliminated by ILIB.

CONCLUSION: ILIB is an effective method in correcting hemocoagulative disorders in patients with CAP.

Eksp Klin Gastroenterol. 2009;(7):9-13.

Effect of various low-intensity laser methods of treatment on an aggregation properties of erythrocytes in chronic pancreatitis

[Article in Russian]

Burduli NM, Gutnova SK.


The aim of the present investigation is to study the influence of low-intensity laser therapy at the aggregate function of erythrocytes in patients with chronic pancreatitis. 118 patients aged 36-77 years old were examined and divided into 2 groups: the experimental (73 patients) and the control group (45 patients). The experimental group has had a complex drug and laser therapy of various therapeutic techniques. Control group has had only drug therapy. In this study were found out various changes of aggregate properties of erythrocytes in patients with exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis. Was established normalizing effects of low-intensity laser therapy on erythrocytes aggregation in experimental group.

Klin Med (Mosk).  2009;87(6):22-5.

Effect of intravenous laser blood irradiation on endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertensive disease.

[Article in Russian]
Burduli NM, Aleksandrova OM.


The aim of this work was to study effect of intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) on endothelial dysfunction in 120 patients (mean age 53.4 +/- 1.3 yr) with grade I-II hypertensive disease (HD) allocated to 2 groups. Traditional drug therapy given to patients of control group was supplemented by ILBI using a Mulat laser therapy device in the study group. Endothelial function was evaluated from the total plasma concentration of stable NOx metabolites, nitrates (NO3-), nitrites (NO2-), and Willebrand’s factor. HD patients were found to have elevated activity of the Willebrand factor and show 3 types of response of the NO generating system: (1) decreased NO synthesis, (2) lack of its changes, and (3) increased NO synthesis. NO production in HD patients negatively correlated with systolic (r = -0.59) and diastolic (r = – 0.64) arterial pressure (AP) which suggests the relationship between decreased NO production and elevated AP. Inclusion of ILBl in the therapy of HD resulted in a significant decrease of Willebrand’s factor activity and normalization of the NO level regardless of its initial value.

Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 2009 May-Jun;43(3):56-60.

Hemoaggregation dynamics in human-operator during percutaneous laser blood irradiation

[Article in Russian]

Subbotina LA, Radchenko SN, Golovkina OL, Bubeev IuA.

The experiment with essentially healthy male subjects no older than 50 involved functional load testing and irradiation by a low-energy helium-neon laser according to the standard therapeutic regimen (0.2 ml/V/ 30 min/10 sessions). Biomedical evaluation of hemoaggregation was made by 30 parameters of a multifunctional diagnostic system characterizing three blood aggregation levels: rheological (biophysical), coagulolytic (biochemical) and system (mathematical). The investigation resulted in delineation of a single-vector hypodynamic transformation of biophysical and biochemical modules, i.e. decrease in the rheological and coagulative potential mediated by a moderate platelets disaggregation (24.6%) and hyperactivation of plasmin proferments in euglobulin fraction (126.76 %). Added sessions of percutaneous laser irradiation of blood were shown to induce a medium imbalance of biophysical and biochemical hemoaggregation. At the same time, low-energy laser did not modulate significantly the general functional state of human operator as the rheological and coagulative protective potential of organism remained reasonably high (88.89 and 87.5 %, respectively).

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2008 Aug;28(8):1400-1.

Low-energy semiconductor laser intranasal irradiation of the blood improves blood coagulation status in normal pregnancy at term.

[Article in Chinese]

Gao X, Zhi PK, Wu XJ.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tung Wah Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University, Dongguang 523110, China. E-mail: flyhighlucky@gmail.com.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of low-energy semiconductor laser intranasal irradiation of the blood on blood coagulation status in healthy pregnant women at term.

METHODS: Low-energy semiconductor laser was introduced into the nasal cavity in 126 healthy pregnant women at term and 123 healthy young unmarried women as the control group. The plasma prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen levels were examined using transmissive turbidimetry after the therapy.

RESULTS: PT, APTT and TT levels were significantly lowered, whereas fibrinogen level significantly increased in the healthy pregnant women before the laser therapy as compared with those in the control group (P<0.01). After intranasal laser therapy, these parameters were significantly improved in the healthy pregnant women (P<0.05) although there were differences from those of the control group.

CONCLUSION: Low-energy semiconductor laser intranasal irradiation of the blood can effectively improve high blood coagulation status in healthy pregnant women at term.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2008 Jan-Feb;(1):15-8.

Influence of laser radiation of the whole blood in vitron on adhesion and aggegation of blood platelets

[Article in Russian]

Brill’ GE, Budnik IA, Gasparian LV, Shenkman B, Savion N, Varon D.

The authors revealed dependence of reaction blood plates to photoeffect on the dose and rate of blood movement at laser radiation of donor blood in vitro. The red light decreases adhesion and aggregation of blood plates both at high and low rate of shift. Infrared laser radiation is effective only at high rate of shift leading to increase of adhesion and decrease of aggregation of blood plates. Blue laser is effective in small doses only and at low rate of sift it leads to decrease of adhesion and at high rate it provokes increase of adhesion. Blue laser do not have a significant influence on aggregation of blood plates. These results make possible to suppose ambiguity of biological response of venous and arterial blood to radiation.

Lasers Med Sci. 2007 Mar;22(1):30-6. Epub 2006 Nov 21.

Irradiation at 904 nm releases nitric oxide from human monocytes.

Lindgård A, Hultén LM, Svensson L, Soussi B.

Wallenberg Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, 413 45, Sweden.

Previous studies have shown that irradiation at 634 nm decreases the release of extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) without affecting viability in human monocytes. Here, we examined the effect of irradiation at 634 nm on the release of nitric oxide (NO), activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS), and release of intracellular ROS. Chemiluminescence assays were used to measure NO release, intracellular ROS, and adenosine triphosphate levels (to assess cell viability). Levels of iNOS and eNOS mRNA were analyzed using PCR. Irradiation resulted in elevated levels of NO but had no effect on iNOS or eNOS. Irradiation also caused a decrease in levels of intracellular ROS and had no effect on cell viability. Our studies indicate that irradiation at 634 nm releases NO, possibly from a preformed store, and reduces the production of intracellular ROS without affecting cell viability. Irradiation at 634 nm may have a wide range of clinical applications, including a reduction in oxidative stress-mediated injury in the vasculature.

Physiol Res. 2006;55(2):189-94. Epub 2005 May 24

The response of Na+/K+ -ATPase of human erythrocytes to green laser light treatment.

Kassák P, Sikurová L, Kvasnicka P, Bryszewska M.

Division of Biomedical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F1, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. pkassak@yahoo.com

The objective of this study was to investigate the response of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase of human erythrocytes to green laser irradiation. Effects of green laser light of fluences 9.5-63.3 J.cm(-2) and merocyanine 540-mediated laser light treatment were studied. Isolated erythrocyte membranes (protein concentration of 1 mg/ml) were irradiated by Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 30 mW) and then incubated in a medium with 2 mM ATP for 30 min. Activity of ATPase was determined colorimetrically by measuring the colored reaction product of liberated inorganic phosphate and malachite green at 640 nm. Contribution of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase to overall phosphate production was determined using ouabain. A positive effect of green laser light on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was observed. The dependence of enzymatically liberated inorganic phosphate on light fluence showed a linear correlation (R(2)=0.96, P=0.0005) for all fluences applied (9.5-63.3 J.cm(-2)). On the other hand, MC 540-mediated phototreatment caused a suppression of enzyme activity.

Klin Med (Mosk). 2006;84(2):61-4.

The influence of low-intensive laser therapy on the aggregation properties of thrombocytes in patients with peptic ulcer

[Article in Russian]

Burduli NM, Gutnova SK.

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of low-intensive laser therapy (LILT) on the aggregation properties of thrombocytes in patients with exacerbation of peptic ulcer (PU). The subjects, 111 patients aged 18 to 63, were divided into two groups: the main group (n = 81), and the control group (n = 30). In addition there were 15 healthy people who also underwent examination. Patients in the main group received complex treatment with untiulcer drugs and different methods of laser therapy: intravenous laser irradiation of blood, cutaneous irradiation, and a combination of both. The control group was treated with drugs only. The study found various changes in the aggregation properties of thrombocytes in patients with PU exacerbation, which consisted mostly in hyperaggregation. LILT had a normalizing effect on the aggregation properties of thrombocytes in patients of the main group.

J Photochem Photobiol B. 2005 Apr 4;79(1):43-50. Epub 2005 Jan 13.

The effect of green laser light irradiation on whole blood platelets.

Gresner P, Wata?a C, Sikurová L.

Department of Biophysics and Chemistry Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. pgresner@yahoo.com

BACKGROUND: Laser light irradiation is assumed to have biostimulating effect in various cell types. However, there is still a lack of information concerning response of blood platelets to laser light irradiation. METHODS: In our study we used flow cytometry to monitor the effect of a green Nd-YAG laser (532 nm, 30 mW) irradiation on platelet activation and the expression of activated GPIIbIIIa glycoprotein complex (fibrinogen receptor) of whole blood platelets stained with fluorolabelled monoclonal antibody PAC-1. Also the formation of platelet microparticles and aggregates in a population of whole blood platelets following such irradiation was evaluated. RESULTS: Effects of laser light on platelet activation and reactivity were significant over a wide range of applied energies (p<0.01). While low and medium laser light energies (18 and 54 J) increased platelet activation, the irradiation with a high-energy laser light (108 J) resulted in depressed platelet reactivity and attenuated platelet response to activators. In addition, laser light irradiation had significant influence on the formation of platelet microparticles in either resting (p<0.05) or ADP-activated (p<0.05) platelets, while no significant effect was observed in collagen-activated platelets. On the other hand, laser light irradiation significantly increased the formation of platelet aggregates both in resting (p<0.01) and agonists-activated (p<0.05) platelets. CONCLUSIONS: Our results clearly point that the laser light irradiation of blood platelets can trigger signal transduction, leading to platelet activation, as well as the gradual loss of natural platelet reactivity and platelets’ ability to respond to activating agents.

Klin Med (Mosk). 2004;82(8):34-7.

Platelet aggregatory impairments in chronic obstructive bronchitis and a role of laser therapy in their correction

[Article in Russian]

Burduli NM, Aksenova IZ.

A comparative follow-up was made to study platelet aggregatory function in patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis (COB) prior to and following treatment. The patients were divided into study and control groups. In addition to conventional treatment, the patients of the study group received laser therapy as intravenous blood irradiation. According to the type of baseline platelet aggregatory changes, all the patients were divided into 3 subgroups: 1) patients with hyperaggregation; 2) those with normal aggregation; and 3) those with hypoaggregation. In the patients from the study group, the performed treatment corrected platelet aggregatory disorders–the degree of aggregation decreased from 78 +/- 8.6% to 56.8 +/- 6.9% in Subgroup 1, increased from 23 +/- 4.8% to 54.6 +/- 6.21% in Subgroup 3. The similar positive changes in aggregation rates and the cumulative aggregation index was observed in the study group. In the control group, conventional drug therapy caused no substantial changes in platelet aggregatory function. Thus, intravenous blood laser irradiation is an effective technique in correcting thrombocytic dysfunction in COB.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2003 Jul-Aug;(4):36-9.

Effect of low level infrared laser irradiation on hemostasis (experimental study)

[Article in Russian]

Efimova EG, Cheida AA, Kaplan MA.

Roentgenostructural, spectral analyses, functional testing of the hemostatic system in experimental animals demonstrated that infrared low-intensity laser radiation changes functional activity of proteins of the hemostatic system. The effect of the radiation depends on the dose and frequency of the radiation impulses. One of the complications is DIC-syndrome which may develop if the exposure dose on the radiation point in tissues with blocked circulation reaches 9.5 mJ/cm2 and higher.

Artif Organs. 2000 Nov;24(11):870-3.

Low power laser protects human erythrocytes In an In vitro model of artificial heart-lung machines.

Itoh T, Murakami H, Orihashi K, Sueda T, Kusumoto Y, Kakehashi M, Matsuura Y.

First Department of Surgery Second Department of Anatomy Institute of Health Sciences, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima, Japan.

The protective effect of the low power helium-neon (He-Ne) laser against the damage of human erythrocytes in whole blood was examined in a perfusion model using an artificial heart-lung machine. Preserved human whole blood was diluted and perfused in 2 closed circuits with a double roller pump. The laser irradiated one of the circuits (laser group), and none the other (control group). In the laser group, erythrocyte deformability and erythrocyte adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were significantly higher, and free hemoglobin levels were significantly lower than those in the control group. Subsequent morphological findings by means of scanning electron microscope were consistent with these results. Low power He-Ne laser protected human erythrocytes in the preserved diluted whole blood from the damage caused by experimental artificial heart-lung machines. The clinical application of low power laser treatment for extracorporeal circulation is suggested.

Klin Khir. 2000 Nov;(11):28-9.

The first experience of application of photo-modified erythrocytes for the treatment of chronic arterial ischemia syndrome

[Article in Russian]

Boiko VV, Grinevich VN, Lodianaia IN.

Efficacy of application of intraarterial erythrocytes infusion, photomodified by using low-energy laser irradiation, was proved, basing on comparative analysis of treatment results of the different groups of patients with obliterating disease of the lower extremities vessels.

Experimental study of low level laser radiation effects on human blood cells.

Siposan D, Adalbert L (Bucharest, Roumania).

Fresh blood from 40 apparently healthy individuals has been irradiated with a low level HeNe laser, using EDTA anticoagulant. Doses ranged between 0-54 J/cm2. The authors watched the relative variation to the received doses of hemoreological constants – erythrocytary and leukocytary indices, as well as the variation of some erythrocytary aggreagability indices-viscocity, BSR. Following irradiation a lowering of the erythrocytary aggreagability (viscosity), BSR, and changes of some erythrocytary and leukocytary indices have been observed. The effect of low-level laser radiation on the red cell confirms the non-resonant mechanism of this bio-stimulating radiation effect by the changes in the cell membrane, in our case the blood cells, by revitalizing the red blood cell functional capacities and by several biochemical effects on the membrane level, that are to be studied thoroughly in future studies. It is concluded that the physical-biochemical and biological effects on blood can influence the physical-chemical parameters needed for long storage of blood products as well as the quick revitalization of the erythrocytary membrane aggressed physically and biochemically, in order to perform its oxophoric function in transfusion procedures.

:Klin Lab Diagn. 2001 Dec;(12):22-4, 33.

The role of erythrocyte rheological determinants in the regulation of bloodflow structure

[Article in Russian]

Katiukhin LN.

Correlations of rheological determinants of the erythrocyte viscous characteristics were studied in normal subjects and coronary patients treated traditionally and with photohemotherapy. A rigid relationship between erythrocyte deformability and aggregation was detected in the patients. Blood exposure to He-Ne laser and UV is a potent method for correcting the blood rheology. Physiological significance of the rigid relationship of erythrocyte deformability and aggregation consists in the maintenance of the structure of flowing blood, characteristic of its native status, and represents an additional mechanism of realization of the adaptive potential of blood viscosity regulation in mammals.

J Photochem Photobiol B. 2004 Mar 19;74(1):7-12.

A comparative study of 632.8 and 532 nm laser irradiation on some rheological factors in human blood in vitro.

Mi XQ, Chen JY, Cen Y, Liang ZJ, Zhou LW.

Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The effects of laser irradiation with 632.8 and 532 nm on rheological properties of blood were comparatively studied in vitro. Under the irradiation condition of 30 mW, laser irradiation of blood samples using a spot diameter of 5 mm with each laser, showed promising results in the modulation of hemorheological properties. When blood samples from patients with abnormally high values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were irradiated, the values of ESR were lowered statistically by either of the 632.8 or 532 nm lasers. The laser irradiation reduced blood viscosities at different shear rates (10-110 S(-1)) for the hyper-viscosity blood samples. Laser irradiation increased the electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of erythrocytes when the values of the sample’s EPM were abnormally slow. The erythrocyte deformability was enhanced by laser irradiation when the deformability of the sample from the patients was originally poor. For verifying the improvement of laser irradiation on erythrocyte deformability, the typical erythrocyte samples with poor deformability were produced by the pre-treatment of the erythrocytes with Ca(2+). The deformability of these erythrocyte samples was also improved after laser irradiation. These results suggest that membrane-bound hemoglobin (Hbm) might be the initial site of the interaction, since Hbm is the main cause of poor deformability when erythrocytes were treated with Ca(2+). In all experiments including ESR, blood viscosity, EPM and erythrocyte deformability, the 532 nm laser demonstrated more efficient effects on modulating rheological properties than 632.8 nm laser. This wavelength effect is consistent with the absorption spectrum of hemoglobin, reflecting that hemoglobin may be one of the action targets under laser irradiation

Thromb Haemost. 2001 Oct;86(4):1087-93.

Alternations of platelet aggregation kinetics with ultraviolet laser emission: the “stunned platelet” phenomenon.

Topaz O, Minisi AJ, Bernardo NL, McPherson RA, Martin E, Carr SL, Carr ME Jr.

Division of Cardiology, McGuire VA Medical Center, Medical College of Virginia Hospitals, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23249, USA.

Platelets, a major constituent of thrombus, play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic coronary syndromes. The effect of ultraviolet laser emission on platelets within thrombi is unknown. The effects of increasing levels of laser energy on platelets in whole blood were investigated. Blood samples were obtained by aseptic venipuncture and anticoagulated with 3.8% sodium citrate. Samples were exposed to increased levels (0, 30, 45, 60 mJ/mm2; 25 Hz) of ultraviolet excimer laser fluence (308 nm wave-length) and then tested for ADP and collagen induced platelet aggregation, platelet concentration, and for platelet contractile force (PCF) development. Scanning electron microscopy was used to detect laser induced morphologic changes of platelets and by flow cytometric analysis to detect changes in expression of platelet surface antigens p-selectin (CD 62) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (CD 43). Exposure to excimer laser energy produced dose dependent suppression of platelet aggregation and force development (“stunned platelets”). ADP aggregation decreased from 8.0+/-1.1 Ohms (mean+/-SEM) to 3.7+/-0.8 Ohms (p<0.001) to 2.7+/-0.6 Ohms (p <0.001) and to 1.8+/-0.5 Ohms (p <0.001) as the laser energy increased from 0 to 30 to 45 to 60 mJ/mm2, respectively. Collagen induced aggregation decreased from 21.4+/-1.4 Ohms to 15.7+/-1.2 Ohms (p <0.001) to 11.7+/-1.1 Ohms (p <0.001) and to 9.9+/-1.0 Ohms (p <0.001), in response to the same incremental range of laser energy. Platelet contractile forces declined from 34,500+/-3700 to 27.800+/-2700 dynes as laser energy increased from 0 to 60 mJ/mm2 (p <0.03). Platelet concentration did not change with increasing laser energy. The expression of platelet surface antigen p-selectin (CD 62) remained stable through increasing levels of laser energy exposures while the percentage of CD 43 positive platelets significantly increased with exposure to laser energy, yet the level of expression did not exceed 0.5% of cells. Thus, aggregation kinetics are altered in platelets exposed to ultraviolet laser energy as manifested by decreased platelet aggregation and reduction in platelet force development capability. The response is dose dependent and most pronounced at higher energy levels such as 60 mJ/mm2.

Platelets. 2000 Mar;11(2):87-93.

Blood irradiation by He-Ne laser induces a decrease in platelet responses to physiological agonists and an increase in platelet cyclic GMP.

Brill AG, Shenkman B, Brill GE, Tamarin I, Dardik R, Kirichuk VF, Savion N, Varon D.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel.

The effect of He-Ne laser irradiation on platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation was investigated. Citrated whole blood was irradiated in vitro by He-Ne laser (632.8 nm, 7 mW) and then subjected to shear stress (1300 s-1) on subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated plates. Laser irradiation was followed by a decrease in platelet adhesion and aggregation on ECM under flow conditions in a time exposure-dependent manner (by 30-40%). The inhibiting effect of laser light on platelets was detectable up to 1 h after the termination of irradiation. Laser irradiation of either platelet-rich plasma, gel-filtered platelets, platelet-poor plasma, or packed blood cells followed by whole blood reconstitution revealed a marked decrease in platelet deposition on ECM only in the cases of platelet-rich plasma or gel filtered platelets. In conventional aggregometry, laser-treated platelet-rich plasma demonstrated a diminished platelet response to both thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP), converting a two-wave aggregation curve to reversible, and to the protein kinase C activator PMA (by 45%). In flow cytometry analysis, irradiated platelets presented lower fibrinogen binding and P-selectin expression in response to TRAP. Laser irradiation had no additional inhibitory effect on dibutyryl cGMP- and dibutyryl cAMP-pretreated platelets. A 50% increase in cGMP level was observed in laser-treated gel filtered platelets, both in the presence and in absence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, isobuthylmethylxanthine. The results suggest that guanylate cyclase is one of the primary mediators of the laser effect on platelet function.

Cell Biol Int. 1998;22(3):245-8.

The biostimulatory effect of red laser irradiation on pig blood platelet function.

Olban M, Wachowicz B, Koter M, Bryszewska M.

Department of Biophysics, University of Lodz, Poland.

The molecular mechanisms of laser-induced changes in the cell structure and function are not well known. The authors examined the effects of low-power laser irradiation on unnucleated pig blood platelets. The obtained results showed that laser irradiation (1-5 J) caused in blood platelets lipid peroxidation (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and superoxide anion generation, concomitant with the release of adenine nucleotides and proteins from platelets. The maximum platelet response to laser irradiation was observed when doses of 1.8-2 J were used. Our results indicate that red laser irradiation induces: (1) platelet secretory process and the release of substances stored in the specific granules (adenine nucleotides, proteins); and (2) lipid peroxidation partly due to stimulation of endogenous arachidonate and production of its metabolites reacting with thiobarbituric acid.

Khirurgiia (Mosk). 1998;(5):40-2.

Intravascular laser irradiation of blood in treatment of traumatic abdominal organs injuries

[Article in Russian]

Koshelev VN, Chalyk IuV.

The application of intravascular laser irradiation of the blood (ILIB) in combined postoperative intensive care in 28 patients with traumatic injuries of parenchymal organs and severe intraabdominal bleeding (more than 20% CBV) contributed to substantial improvement of the results of treatment and reduction of complications rate. ILIB boosts functional activity of leucocytes, normalizes the system of hemostasis and antioxidant defence.

Anesteziol Reanimatol.  1997 Jul-Aug;(4):36-8.

The effect of low-intensity laser radiation on the parameters of the blood anticoagulation system in the early postresuscitation period.

[Article in Russian]
Iakovleva NE, Liapina LA, Novoderzhkina IS, Kirsanova AK, Berezina TL, Kozhura VL.


The effect of low-intensive laser exposure at a wavelength of 634 nm and power 1 mWt at the tip of the light-guide on the blood anticoagulative system was studied in mongrel narcotized dogs of both sexes weighing 8 to 16 kg during the postresuscitation period after 4-min clinical death from massive blood loss. The anticoagulative system in the blood plasma was depleted during the reanimation period (the activities of plasmin and fibrinogen-heparin complexes and the level of heparin dropped). Intravascular laser exposure of the blood (for 30 min during blood loss after drop of the mean arterial pressure to 40 mm Hg and at the beginning of the second hour of the postreanimation period) boosted the activities of plasmin and fibrinogen-heparin complexes but failed to increase the level of heparin in the postreanimation period.

J Clin Laser Med Surg. 1993 Aug;11(4):185-9.

Effect of low-power He-Ne laser on deformability of stored human erythrocytes.

Iijima K, Shimoyama N, Shimoyama M, Mizuguchi T.

Department of Anesthesiology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Japan.

This study was designed to investigate the effect of the He-Ne laser (continuous wave, lambda = 632.8 nm, 8.5 mW in power) irradiation on human erythrocyte deformability. Blood samples were obtained from hematologically normal adult donors by venipuncture. Red cells were washed and adjusted to 30% Ht with 0.9% NaCl solution (pH 7.00). Red cell solution samples were assigned to three groups. Each sample was divided into seven 3-ml working aliquots. The aliquots in Group I were irradiated for 0 (control), 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min within 2 hr after sampling. The aliquots in Group 2 and Group 3 were stored at 5 degrees C for 24 and 36 hr, respectively, and received similar irradiations after 12 hr (in both groups), 24 hr (in Group 2), and 36 hr (in Group 3) from sampling. Red cell deformability was measured by the Nuclepore filter filtration and presented as the filter filtration rate (FFR). The deformability shown as FFR was unchanged in Group 1 (fresh cell group) from the control value, but improved significantly in Groups 2 and 3 (damaged cell groups) after the irradiation. These results suggested that the irradiation of low-powered He-Ne lasers improved cytoskeletal protein activities in damaged erythrocytes.

Laser irradiation to correct disorders of blood albumin transport in severe mechanical trauma

[Article in Russian]

Kravchenko-Berezhnaia NR, Moroz VV, Kozhura VL.

The paper provides evidence for that it is expedient to perform multi-stage intravascular low-intensity laser blood radiation in patients with severe mechanical trauma and massive blood loss in the early posttraumatic period. The use of laser radiation at a wavelength of 632.0 nm by inserting a disposable light guide (its end power was 1.5-2.0 mW, and the duration of a session–30 min) as part of complex therapy in this group of patients promotes the increase of plasma albumin transport ability and the general stimulation of natural detoxifixation mechanisms.

Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 1992 Jul-Aug;149(7-8):78-80.

Intravenous laser irradiation of the blood in severe forms of chronic venous insufficiency

[Article in Russian]

Shval’b PG, Kachinski? AE, Kolobaev VI, Kataev MI.

Based on an analysis of results of treatment of 86 patients the authors have shown that the intravenous laser irradiation of blood results in hypocoagulation, lower hematocrit index. In 52 patients good results of treatment were obtained, in 26 patients results were satisfactory. No complications were noted.